The story of Adam: a call for a secular, pluralistic society

The story of Adam a call 1The story of Adam a call 2

 
Adam literally means a human, i.e. ‘a potentially rational, loving man living in harmony with others’. While Adam thus symbolises humankind in general, the Garden of Adam is the ideal abode of man (2:35). It is our Human Earth of infinitely diverse minds, the multi-coloured garden of One Humanity which is constantly watered by one divine inspiration (2:22-23, 2:25, 2:35, 2:221, 2:265-268).

It is this great garden of pluralism and multifaceted Truth, where one heavenly rain is yielding through countless minds all sorts of fruits of all colours – whereby One divine light (the Truth) is split into infinite human colours (a truth’s) (2:22-87, 2:136-164, 16:2-69, 23:17-32, 30:9-24, 35:19-28, 39:18-69).

In sociological terms, it is the secular, open, tolerant, inclusive, multicultural, multireligious, multiethnic, pluralistic society where all people from all backgrounds live in peace and harmony with one another. An Utopia as probably envisioned by the Medina Charter.

This garden of bliss, this perfect dwelling of humanity, is lost when humans ‘fall’ from this higher station of One Humanity (10:19), because of ‘eating’ from the Tree of Discord and Division under the influence of the Evil Urge (2:34-36), thereby getting split up into conflicting factions: Descend you all, as enemies to one another. 2:36 (cf. 2:30, 2:72, 2:84-85, 2:178, 2:213; also 5:27-32; 7:19-27, 31, 35, 199-201; 10:19; 17:53).

And this lost paradise can be regained by following the Divine messages of ONENESS revealed through the messengers (2:37-39, 7:35, 7:59-84, 20:121-123, 38:12-65). Messages of Oneness of humans, Oneness of life, Oneness of the universe, and, above all, Oneness of the Divine (6:106; 6:1, 6:13, 6:14, 6:73-79; cf. 2:111-112, 21:92-94, 22:78, 57:25, 98:5).

A final word

The story of Adam calls for a secular, pluralistic society (the Garden of Adam) as the ideal abode of humanity.

Related reading: The meaning of the story of Adam

Advertisements

All good deeds spring from the Awareness of Oneness

All good deeds spring from the Awareness of Oneness


All good deeds are products of the Awareness of Oneness

The original messages for a decent existence as delivered by all the true messengers, sages and visionaries of all mankind are simple and very similar in essence (42:13-23). They are at the inner core of all spiritualities and religions. They are messages of kindness, justice, pluralism, tolerance and cooperation, along with continuous enlightening of the self through endless search for knowledge, based on the concepts of oneness of humans, oneness of life, oneness of the Universe, and, above all, oneness of the Divine (6:1, 6:13, 6:14, 6:73-79, 6:106; cf. 57:25, 98:5, 22:78, 2:111-112, 21:92-94).

All these prophetic messages, all revolving around the Awareness of Oneness, have been badly polluted throughout the ages with problematic addendums – i.e. misinterpretations by narrower minds done consciously and often subconsciously under the pressure of various socio-economic, political and psycho-theological factors – only to be misused by various interest groups and individuals (3:18-19).

No wonder, throughout the Quran, amal al-salihat or good deeds are invariably mentioned together with iman1, i.e. the conscious acknowledgement of the Ultimate One (Tawhid and the related Transcendent; cf. 2:62).

It is because, in one way or another, every good deed springs from the Awareness of ONENESS: oneness of The Reality (3:18, 21:22), oneness of the Universe (21:30, 6:73), oneness of life (31:10, 31:28), oneness of animals (24:45, 6:38), oneness of humans (7:189, 30:20-22), oneness of genders (4:1, 16:72) … and so on.2

For example: ▪ Man and woman are one as human counterparts. A person treats males and females as equals only when s/he acknowledges this oneness of genders. So any act affirming gender equality is a manifestation of iman, the awareness of Oneness. ▪ All humans are one as a species. A person helps others only when s/he acknowledges this oneness of humanity. So any act of altruism and philanthropy is a manifestation of iman, the awareness of Oneness. ▪ Humans and animals are one as relatives of a biological family. A person deals kindly with animals only when s/he acknowledges this oneness of the living world. So any act inspired by animal love is a manifestation of iman, the awareness of Oneness. ▪ The living community of all interacting organisms, including humans, and their physical environment are one as an ecosystem. A person plants a tree or contributes to the ecological balance only when s/he acknowledges this oneness of nature. So any act promoting eco-friendly living is a manifestation of iman, the awareness of Oneness.

Thus, on closer inspection, all good deeds (amal al-salihat) are products of the Awareness of Oneness (iman), actualised. They are dependent on and cannot exist without this awareness. Deeds that lack this awareness and covet selfish rewards (sawab) instead, cannot qualify as virtuous. This explains why the Quran constantly associates deeds with awareness.

But, aren’t all atheists and non-Muslims going to fire/hell?

Not really. The Quran assures absolute divine justice for everyone, purely based on one’s DEED, rather than one’s CREED (2:286, 3:25, 4:40, 6:160, 18:7, 46:19, 49:13-14, 99:7-8).

Now, when a so-called atheist or a non-Muslim performs righteous acts, does s/he possess the Awareness of Oneness? In a true sense, YES. As s/he does good, it means s/he esteems the moral axioms of the Oneness and the related Transcendent. It means s/he subconsciously ‘believes’ in tawhid/oneness – or at least some of its aspects – though in a way different from the traditional Muslim understandings of this word.

Then, when a so-called Muslim commits evil acts, does s/he possess the Awareness of Oneness? In a true sense, NO. As s/he does bad, it means s/he violates the moral axioms of the Oneness and the related Transcendent. It means s/he subconsciously ‘disbelieves’ in tawhid/oneness – or at least some of its aspects – though s/he remains deluded in her/his claim of belief.

We observe that the apparent insistence in the Quran on iman, often mistranslated as belief3, is not for iman itself but for all the righteous acts the Awareness of Oneness naturally generates. Otherwise, the actual insistence is on action, and nothing but action.

At the end of the day, it is not the ‘beliefs’ but the actions that will be rewarded (4:40, 18:7, 46:19, 49:13-14, 99:7-8).

Believers and non-believers and Muslims and non-Muslims are labels only. It is impossible to imagine that an infinitely just, all-wise God would descend so low to judge small humans on the basis of these small labels.

***********************************

Note 1

Throughout the Quran, good deeds are constantly mentioned along with iman or Awareness of Oneness: 2:25, 2:82, 3:57, 2:277, 4:57, 4:122, 4:124, 4:173, 5:9, 5:93, 7:42, 10:9, 10:4, 13:29, 14:23, 17:9, 18:2, 18:30, 18:107, 19:96, 20:112, 20:75, 21:94, 22:14, 22:23, 22:50, 22:56, 24:55, 26:227, 29:7, 29:9, 29:58, 30:15, 30:45, 31:8, 32:19, 34:4, 35:7, 38:28, 38:24, 40:58, 41:8, 42:22, 42:23, 42:26, 45:30, 45:21, 47:12, 47:2, 48:29, 65:11, 84:25, 85:11, 95:6, 98:7, 103:3.

For example: As for those who acknowledge and do good deeds, they are made happy in a meadow of delight. 30:15. According to research published by the American Psychological Association, “People who believe in oneness — the idea that everything in the world is connected and interdependent — appear to have greater life satisfaction than those who don’t, regardless of whether they belong to a religion or don’t”: People with a sense of oneness experience greater life satisfaction

Note 2

Our case study Understanding chapter 6 from Abraham’s perspective reveals how chapter 6 of the Quran – in line with Abraham’s holistic observation of the Universe (6:75-79) – confirms God’s absolute oneness through a series of holistic observations (observing unity in diversity), e.g.: Oneness of dialectical opposites (6:1, 6:13, 6:14), oneness of unknown and known, invisible and visible, unobservable and observable (6:13, 6:73, 6:59); oneness of all cosmic systems (6:14, 6:73, 6:101; cf. 6:75-79, 96, 97), oneness of the solar system (6:75-79; cf. 14:33-38; 37:1-7, 88), oneness of the solar system with the outer cosmos (6:75-79, 96-97; cf. 37:1-7, 88); oneness of life and death, organic and inorganic, living and non-living, seed and kernel, and cause and effect (6:95), oneness of all life with oneness of all humans, animals and plants (6:98-99), oneness of all wombs (6:137-144, 6:98-99), oneness of all plants, oneness in the diversity of plants and oneness in all their photosynthetic products (6:99, 6:141), oneness of all animals (6:38), oneness of the genders (6:98, 6:139, 143); oneness of man with the Universe (6:2, 6:98-99, 6:38, 6:133, 6:6), oneness of man with earthly material (6:2), oneness of man with plants (6:98-99), oneness of man with animals (6:38), oneness of man with hominoids (6:133, cf. 6:165), oneness of all humanity (6:98, 6:165), oneness of all communities (6:38); oneness of all senses and visions (6:103; cf. 6:25, 36, 38-39, 46, 103-104), oneness of sleep and consciousness (6:60), oneness of subconscious and conscious, and thoughts and actions (6:3), oneness of prosperity and adversity (6:17); oneness of all messengers (6:42, 6:48, 6:10, 6:33-34, 6:84-88, 6:130), oneness of all scriptures (6:91-92, 6:154-157), oneness of all monotheists (6:159), oneness of all service (6:52), oneness of all duties (6:162-163), oneness of the divine system (6:159-161) and so on ….

Note 3

The word IMAN is related to AMANAT (trustiness) and thus actually means acknowledgement of a thing/truth already known/evident to the receiver. The antithesis of iman is kufar, i.e. covering or rejection of a thing/truth, though already known/evident to the receiver, due to some selfish gain. Iman is often translated, incorrectly, as ‘belief’, which means acceptance of something as true without seeking proof. We are asked not to believe anything blindly (17:36, 56:57) but to acknowledge the evident truth, which is to be grasped through a continuous process of observing, reasoning and learning (20:114, 39:33, 43:3-4, 49:14-15, 70:26).

Extended shahada is not a requirement for salvation

(Reason 14 of22 serious reasons shahada should contain no name except God’s’)

Extended shahada is not a requirement for salvation

 
Important is deed, NOT creed

We observed earlier that the awareness of God’s Oneness, formulated in the Quran as shahada, is the sole basis of Islam and so is the only ideological requirement to be or become a Muslim. Hence anyone from any religious or whatsoever background, whoever bears in mind this awareness and acts accordingly, is a Muslim and therefore qualifies for salvation1.

Contrary to this Quranic definition of Muslim, sectarian Islam contends that a person cannot be a Muslim and so cannot be saved unless s/he accepts and testifies to Muhammad’s messengership. Clearly, this concept is similar2 to the Jewish claim of chosen people and the Christian belief of salvation exclusively through Jesus, based on the doctrines of original sin and vicarious atonement3, which have no support in the Quran.

Is the sectarian testimony, which is thus extended with human name/s with God’s, really essential for human salvation? The Quran answers in the negative:

Surely those who acknowledge, and those who are Jews, and Christians, and who are from other religions, whoever acknowledges God and the Last Day and does right, surely their reward is with their Sustainer, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. 2:62

Let us put the question differently. Could a confession about a human demigod, along with God, be a shortcut key to salvation and paradise? Or, is it the other way round – i.e., as an act of potential association with God4, may it itself become a serious obstacle to salvation (3:64-65, 6:14, 39:36; cf. 3:52-53)? Here we have an answer:

Say: I am but a human like you, being inspired that your god is One god. So whoever hopes to meet his Sustainer, let him do righteous work and associate NONE (not even me) in the worship of his Sustainer! 18:110

Now, while rejecting the Jewish and Christian claims of their superiority as religious groups, the Quran instantly dismisses also the assertion of Muhammad-worshippers that people who do not accept or testify to his messengership are not Muslims, and hence are destined to doom5 (2:111-112, 2:130-141). Rather it affirms that there are many good people among other religious/non-religious groups who do qualify for salvation6 (3:75, 3:113-114, 5:65-66, 5:82-83, 7:159) – because all what is essential for salvation is sincerity of mind and good work, not mere lip service to any belief system (29:2-3, 35:10, 59:22; cf. 2:214, 2:158, 3:141, 9:16, 33:10).

Thus, while All good deeds spring from the Awareness of Oneness, the Quran assures absolute divine justice for everyone, purely based on one’s DEED, rather than one’s CREED7 (2:286, 3:25, 6:160, 36:54, 46:19). Though all humans are intrinsically equal by birth, they are ranked according to their works (46:19), since the best among them in the sight of God is the best in conduct (49:13). So at the end of the day what is really important is the action rather than mere belief (18:7). God will not put any of one’s sincere deeds to waste, irrespective of one’s belief, even if the true belief has not entered into the heart8 (49:13-14).

Thus, anyone from any religious or non-religious background – Hindu, Jewish, Zoroastrian, Confucian, Buddhist, Christian, Muslim, Sikh, Agnostic and so on – whoever does good work, while upholding the permanent values, can equally attain divine grace and salvation9 (2:135-136, 3:57, 5:69, 16:97, 20:112).

Judgment belongs to God alone and allows no intermediary

The Quran insists that, since the Judgment belongs to God alone (6:57, 6:159, 12:40, 40:12), His final judgment will allow no intercessor or intermediary besides Him (no Jesus, Muhammad and so on; 2:48, 2:254, 6:51, 6:94, 6:164; 7:53, 19:95, 39:43-45, 53:25-27, 66:10) as it will be based on absolute justice tampered with divine mercy and compassion10 (18:88, 21:92-94, 28:77, 41:30, 46:13, 95:6).

In other words, irrespective of faith or creed, even the smallest details of all the actions of every human will be brought to divine justice where nothing will be wasted or ignored: anyone who grows the self will succeed; whoever buries it will fail11 (4:40, 6:164, 13:33, 45:22, 53:36-42, 91:7-10, 99:7-8).

When the shahada is extended with ‘others’ besides God’s, with the veiled anticipation of mediation through a human savior, it violates the important Quranic position that categorically rejects all doctrines of intercession and recommends no intermediary between human and God for the purpose of salvation (2:48, 2:123, 2:254, 6:70, 6:94, 7:53, 39:44, 74:48, 66:10).

What’s more, the divine wisdom even apprehends the danger that associating a testimony about Muhammad with the testimony about God’s Oneness, may actually idolize him as a divine associate, thus involving shirk, the only unforgivable sin, which may in turn divert people away from the path of salvation12 (3:64; 6:19,106,150; 18:102,110; cf. 4:48, 4:116, 39:65, 6:88).

Then, by strongly condemning any discrimination between messengers, the Quran essentially forbids any added shahada that singles one particular messenger out from all others. Time and again it demands equal treatment of all messengers and describes it as an important foundation of faith (2:136, 2:285, 3:84, 4:152, 21:92, 23:51-53, 33:40) that by itself would guide towards salvation. Please note that this promise for salvation excludes those who exalt Muhammad above other messengers:

And those who acknowledge God and His messengers and make no distinction between any of them, We will grant them their rewards. 4:152

It is such an irony that the salvation of billions should depend on the shahada about a demigod, who himself is not allowed to intercede for anyone (9:80, 39:3, 39:19, 63:6; cf. 25:30-31, 2:48, 5:109) and who himself is given no guarantee for his own salvation (46:9; cf. 7:188, 10:49, 11:31, 72:25).

Finally, one important NOTE: No human has the authority to judge another human about her destiny. Only God, as the ultimate witness over everything, knows who among us better qualifies than whom in respect of salvation:

Surely those who acknowledge and those who were Jews and the Sabians and the Christians and the Zoroastrians and those who set up associates, certainly God will decide between them on the Day of Resurrection: for God is witness over all things. 22:17; cf. 13:33

 

Summary

Extended shahada is not a requirement for salvation

The awareness of God’s Oneness, or shahada, is the sole basis of Islam and so is the only ideological requirement to be or become a Muslim. Sectarian Islam, however, contends that a person cannot be a Muslim and so cannot be saved unless s/he accepts and testifies to Muhammad’s messengership. Not supported by the Quran, this concept is similar to the Jewish claim of chosen people and the Christian belief of salvation exclusively through Jesus.

Is the sectarian testimony, which is thus extended with human name/s with God’s, really essential for human salvation? According to the Quran, it is the other way round – i.e., as an act of potential association with God, it may itself become a serious obstacle to salvation (2:62, 18:110, 3:64-65, 6:14, 39:36; cf. 3:52-53).

Now, while rejecting the claims of various religious groups about their monopoly on salvation (2:111-112, 2:130-141), the Quran affirms that there are many good people from all backgrounds who do qualify for salvation (3:75, 3:113-114, 5:65-66, 5:82-83, 7:159) – because all what is essential for salvation is sincerity of mind and good work, not mere lip service to any belief system (29:2-3, 35:10, 59:22; cf. 2:214, 2:158, 3:141, 9:16, 33:10).

While All good deeds spring from the Awareness of Oneness, the Quran assures absolute divine justice for everyone, purely based on one’s DEED, rather than one’s CREED (2:286, 3:25, 6:160, 36:54, 46:19; cf. 18:7, 46:19, 49:13-14). Thus anyone from any religious or non-religious background whoever does good work, while upholding the permanent values, can equally attain divine grace and salvation (2:135-136, 3:57, 5:69, 16:97, 20:112).

The Quran insists that, since the Judgment belongs to God alone (6:57, 6:159, 12:40, 40:12), His final judgment will allow no intercessor or intermediary besides Him (2:48, 2:254, 6:51, 6:94, 6:164; 7:53, 19:95, 39:43-45, 53:25-27, 66:10) as it will be based on absolute justice tampered with divine mercy and compassion (18:88, 21:92-94, 28:77, 41:30, 46:13, 95:6). Irrespective of faith or creed, even the smallest details of all the actions of every human will be brought to divine justice where nothing will be wasted or ignored (4:40, 6:164, 13:33, 45:22, 53:36-42, 91:7-10, 99:7-8).

When the shahada is extended with ‘others’ besides God’s, with the veiled anticipation of mediation through a human savior, it violates the important Quranic position that categorically rejects all doctrines of intercession and recommends no intermediary for the purpose of salvation (2:48, 2:123, 2:254, 6:70, 6:94, 7:53, 39:44, 74:48, 66:10).

What’s more, the divine wisdom even apprehends the danger that associating Muhammad’s name with God’s, may actually idolize him as a divine associate, thus involving shirk, which may in turn divert people away from the path of salvation (3:64; 6:19,106,150; 18:102,110; cf. 4:48, 4:116, 39:65, 6:88).

Then, the Quran strongly demands equal treatment of all messengers, an important foundation of faith, which by itself guides towards salvation (4:152; cf. 2:136, 2:285, 3:84, 21:92, 23:51-53, 33:40).

It is such an irony that the salvation of billions should depend on the shahada about a demigod, who himself is not allowed to intercede for anyone (9:80, 39:3, 39:19, 63:6; cf. 25:30-31, 2:48, 5:109) and who himself is given no guarantee for his own salvation (46:9; cf. 7:188, 10:49, 11:31, 72:25).

Finally, only God, as the ultimate witness over everything, knows who among us better qualifies than whom in respect of salvation (13:33, 22:17).

 

***********************************

Note 1

We have used the word ‘salvation’ for the sake of convenience. Otherwise, the goal of a spiritual journey, as described in the Quran, is success (91:9-10), NOT salvation, which is more a biblical concept.

Note 2

The traditional Islamic understanding that a person cannot be saved unless s/he testifies to Muhammad’s messengership is similar to the Jewish claim of chosen people and the Christian belief of salvation exclusively through Jesus (Now this is eternal life: that they know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent. John 17:3), based on the doctrines of original sin and vicarious atonement, which have no support in the Quran (2:37, 6:164, 17:15, 35:18, 39:7, 39:53, 53:38-39; cf. Deut 24:16, Ezekiel 18:20).

Note 3

Islam is not about any particular messenger. It differs from traditional Christianity in a few important issues: the Quran dismisses all dogmas of original sin and vicarious atonement (2:37, 6:164, 17:15, 35:18, 39:7, 39:53, 53:38-39; cf. Deut 24:16, Ezekiel 18:20) and recognizes no intermediary or intercessor between human and God (2:48, 2:254, 2:257, 6:51, 6:94, 6:164; 7:53, 19:95, 39:43-45, 50:16, 66:10). While rejecting fatalistic determinism of human destiny (36:67-68), it puts full responsibility on every individual (4:32, 5:104-105, 6:94, 6:164, 19:95, 53:38-39) to use her own intellect and reasoning to personally know and act (10:100, 17:36, 5:104-105, 90:4-13). And, also because God is closer to a person than her ‘jugular vein’ and ‘nearer to her than all her nearest’ (50:16, 56:85), she requires no agency, no middleman and no third party to witness her sins or faith or to help her to commune with God. Instead, she should contact her Sustainer directly in accordance with her own understanding (2:186, 11:61). The Quran thus authorizes no messenger or anyone else to share in divine affairs (25:3), while asserting that even the Prophet himself doesn’t serve as an extra guide apart from the Quran (10:35-36) and doesn’t serve as any spiritual link that would make his devotee any closer to God (3:79-80, 3:144, 6:19, 6:50, 6:164, 16:51, 17:57, 18:110, 19:81-82, 38:65, 39:3, 40:12, 46:9, 46:28, 72:21-23, 79:42-44). Rather it condemns reverencing the prophet/s as shirk or idolatry (39:3, 39:36, 17:57, 9:31, 7:194, 3:64, 6:164).

Note 4

The Quran NEVER and NOWHERE sanctions association or elevation of ‘others’ with God; God is sufficient for a submitting peace-seeker:

Say: O People of the Book! Come to a statement common between us and you: That we worship none but God; that we associate none with Him; that we erect not, from among ourselves, lords other than God. And if they turn away, then say: Bear witness that we are submitters (Muslims)./ O People of the Book! Why do you argue about Abraham, when the Torah and the Gospel were not revealed until after him? Do you not reason? 3:64-65

Say: Shall I take as an ally anyone but God, the Originator of the Heavens and the Earth, when it is He who feeds and is not Himself fed? Say: I am commanded to be foremost among those who submit and that: Do not be of those who associate. 6:14

Is God not sufficient for His servant? They frighten you with others beside Him. Whomever God sends astray, then for him there will be no guide. 39:36

Note 5

While rejecting the Jewish and Christian claims of their superiority as religious groups, the Quran instantly dismisses also the assertion of Muhammad-worshippers that people who do not accept or testify to his messengership are not Muslims, and hence are destined to doom:

And they say: None enters paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian. These are their own wishes. Say: Produce an evidence for what you are claiming, if you are truthful./ Nay, whoever submits himself to God and is a doer of good, he shall get his reward with his Sustainer; on such shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. 2:111-112

And who would abandon the creed of Abraham except one who fools himself? We have selected him in this world, and in the Hereafter he is of the righteous./ When his Sustainer said to him: Submit, he said: I submit to the Sustainer of the worlds./ And Abraham enjoined his children and so did Jacob: O my children, God has selected the system for you, so do not die except as ones who have submitted./ Or, were you then witnesses when death approached Jacob and he told his sons: What shall you worship after me?, they said: Your god, and the god of your fathers Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac; One God and to Him we are submitters. …/ They said: Be Jews or Christians so that you may be guided! Say: No, rather the creed of Abraham the upright, who turned away from all that is false; for he was not of those who set up associates./ Say: We acknowledge God, and that which is revealed unto us, and to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Patriarchs, and that which was given to Moses and Jesus, and that which was given to all the other prophets from their Sustainer. We make no difference between one and another of them: And unto Him alone we are submitters./ So if they acknowledge in the way you acknowledge, then they are guided …/ Such is God’s colouring. And who is better than God in colouring? And Him alone we worship./ Say: Do you debate with us regarding God? He is our Sustainer and your Sustainer, and we have our work and you have your work, and to Him we are devoted. 2:130-133, 135-139

Or do you say that Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the Patriarchs were all Jewish or Christians (or e.g. Muhammadans)? Say: Do you know more than God does? Who is more wicked than one who conceals the testimony (shahada) with him from God? But God is not unmindful of what you do./ That was a community that passed away; to them is what they earned and to you is what you have earned; you will not be asked about what they did. 2:140-141

To better understand the expression ‘God’s colouring’, it is useful to remember that the word colours in the Quran signifies the concepts of pluralism and multidimensionality of the Truth.

Note 6

The Quran affirms that there are many good people among all religious/non-religious groups who do qualify for salvation:

And from among the people of the Book are those whom if you entrust him with a treasure, he will return it to you, and there are those whom if you entrust with one gold coin he will not return it to you unless you keep after him. 3:75 

They are not all alike: among the people of the Book there are upright people who recite divine messages during parts of the night and they prostrate./ They acknowledge God and the Last day, promote recognized norms and deter from evil, and they hasten in goodness; these are of the reformed ones. 3:113-114

If the people of the Book only would have acknowledged and been aware, We would have cancelled for them their sins and admitted them into gardens of bliss./ If they had upheld the Torah, the Gospel, and all what was sent down to them from their Sustainer, they would have been rewarded from above them and below their feet. Among them there are moderate people, but many of them commit evil. 5:65-66

And you will find the closest in affection to those who acknowledge are those who said, “We are Nazarenes” that is because amongst them are Priests and Monks, and they are not arrogant./ And if they hear what was sent down to the messenger you see their eyes flooding with tears, for what they have known as the truth, they say: “Our Sustainer, we acknowledge, so record us with the witnesses.” 5:82-83

And among the folk of Moses there are people who guide in the way of the truth and act justly in its light. 7:159

Note 7

While All good deeds spring from the Awareness of Oneness, the Quran assures absolute divine justice for everyone, purely based on one’s DEED, rather than one’s CREED:

God does not burden any self beyond its capacity. In its favour is what it earns, and against it is what it earns. 2:286

Every self shall receive what it has earned, and no injustice will be done to anyone. 3:25

Whoever brings a good deed will receive a tenfold reward. And whoever brings an ill deed will be requited for only one. And no injustice will be done to anyone. 6:160

This Day no person will be wronged in the least, nor will you be requited for other than what you were doing. 36:54

To each will be degrees according to what they did; He will recompense them and they will face no injustice. 46:19

Note 8

Though all humans are intrinsically equal by birth, they are ranked according to their works (46:19), since the best among them in the sight of God is the best in conduct (49:13). So at the end of the day what is really important is the action rather than belief (18:7). God will not put any of one’s sincere deeds to waste, irrespective of one’s belief, even if the true belief has not entered into the heart (49:13-14):

To each will be degrees according to what they did; He will recompense them and they will face no injustice. 46:19

Surely We have made what is on Earth an adornment for it so that We test them as to who is better in deeds. 18:7

O mankind! Behold, We have created you as/of male and female, and made you into nations and groups, that you may know each other. Surely, the most honorable among you in the sight of God is the most righteous (or most aware). Surely, God is All-knowing, All-aware./ The Arabs (Bedouins) said: “We acknowledge.” Say: “You have not acknowledged; but you should rather say: ‘We have submitted’, for acknowledgement has not yet entered into your hearts. Yet if you obey God and His messenger (message), He will not put any of your works to waste: for God is Forgiving, Merciful.” 49:13-14

Note 9

Anyone from any religious or non-religious background – Hindu, Jewish, Zoroastrian, Confucian, Buddhist, Christian, Muslim, Sikh, Agnostic and so on – whoever does good work, while upholding the permanent values, can equally attain divine grace and salvation:

They said: Be Jews or Christians so that you may be guided! Say: No, rather the creed of Abraham the upright, who turned away from all that is false; for he was not of those who set up associates./ Say: We acknowledge God, and that which is revealed unto us, and to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Patriarchs, and that which was given to Moses and Jesus, and that which was given to all the other prophets from their Sustainer. 2:135-136

As for those (Christians and others) who acknowledge and do good works He will grant their reward in full. 3:57

Surely those who acknowledge, and those who are Jews, and who are from other religions, and Christians, whoever acknowledges God and the Last Day and does right, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. 5:69

To whoever, male or female, does good deeds while acknowledging, We shall give a good life and reward them according to the best of their actions. 16:97

And whoever does any good works, while he is an acknowledger, then he should not fear injustice nor being given less than his due. 20:112

Note 10

The Quran insists that, since the Judgment belongs to God alone (6:57, 6:159, 12:40, 40:12), His final judgment will allow no intercessor or intermediary besides Him (no Jesus, Muhammad and so on; 2:48, 2:254, 6:51, 6:94, 6:164; 7:53, 19:95, 39:43-45, 53:25-27, 66:10) as it will be based on absolute justice tampered with divine mercy and compassion:

Now certainly you have returned to Us, alone, as We created you at first, leaving behind all that We bestowed on you. Nor do We see with you your mediators whom you asserted to be your associates. 6:94

And as for he who acknowledges and does good, then he will have the reward of goodness, and we will speak to him simply of our plan. 18:88

And each of them will come to Him on the Resurrection Day, alone. 19:95

This is your nation, one nation, since I am the Sustainer of you all: so worship Me alone./ But they divided themselves by disputing the matter, (forgetting that) unto Us they all will be returned./ So whosoever does good work and he is an acknowledger, then his efforts will not be rejected: for We are recording it for him. 21:92-94

And seek the future abode by means of what God has granted you, and forget not your own share in this world, and do good to others as God has done good to you. And spread not corruption on Earth, for God loves not the corruptors. 28:77

Surely, those who say, “Our Sustainer is God,” then remain steadfast, upon them descend the Forces: “Fear not and grieve not, but rejoice in the glad tidings of the Paradise that you are promised.” 41:30

Surely, all those who say: “Our Sustainer is God,” then remain steadfast, there is no fear for them, nor will they grieve. 46:13

Except those who have acknowledged and do good works: and theirs shall be a reward unending! 95:6

Note 11

The Quran insists that, irrespective of faith or creed, even the smallest details of all the actions of every human will be brought to divine justice where nothing will be wasted or ignored: anyone who grows the self will succeed; whoever buries it will fail:

Verily, God does not wrong by as much as an atom’s weight. 4:40

Say: Shall I seek for Lord other than God when He is the Sustainer of everything? No self earns but from its own works, and none will bear the burden of another. 6:164

Is He not the one who stands over every self, seeing all its actions (will He need any intermediary)? Yet they set up associates with God. Say: “Name them.” 13:33

And God has created the Heavens and the Earth with the truth, and so that every self may be recompensed for what it earned, and they will not be wronged. 45:22

That no bearer of a burden can bear another’s burden:/ That man can have nothing but what he strives for. 53:38-39

Indeed, he succeeds who grows it (the self),/ And indeed, he fails who buries it. 91:9-10

Then anyone who has done an atom’s weight of good, shall behold it./ And anyone who has done an atom’s weight of evil, shall behold it. 99:7-8

Note 12

The divine wisdom even apprehends the danger that associating a testimony about Muhammad with the testimony about God’s Oneness, may actually idolize him as a divine associate, thus involving shirk, the only unforgivable sin, which may in turn divert people away from the path of salvation:

Say: What is greatest as witness? Say: God: a witness between me and between you, and this Quran has been revealed to me that I may warn you thereby and whomever it reaches. Do you then bear witness that along with God there are other gods? Say: I do not bear witness! Say: He is only One god, and I am innocent of what you associate (e.g., the idol you make of me by associating me with God in shahada)! …/ Follow what has been revealed unto you from your Sustainer:La Ilaha Illa hu (there is no god but He); and turn away from those who set up associates. …/ Say: “Bring your witnesses who bear witness that (through His associate/s, 6:19) God has forbidden this (cf. 16:35).” If they bear witness, then do not bear witness with them, nor follow the desires of those who have given the lie to Our messages, and those who do not acknowledge the End; and they make equals with their Sustainer! 6:19, 106, 150

Did those who reject think that they could take My servants as allies besides Me? We have prepared Hell for the rejecters as a dwelling…/ Say: I am but a human like you, being inspired that your god is One god. So whoever hopes to meet his Sustainer, let him do righteous work and associate none (not even me) in the worship of his Sustainer! 18:102, 110

Muhammad: Prophet of Peace Amid the Clash of Empires by Juan Cole

Muhammad Prophet of Peace Amid the Clash of Empires by Juan Cole

 
A few introductory words about Muhammad: Prophet of Peace Amid the Clash of Empires, a recent book by Juan Cole, professor of history at the University of Michigan (you can read the book as preview by opening the above link and then CLICKING on the picture inside):

In the midst of the dramatic seventh-century war between two empires, Muhammad was a spiritual seeker in search of community and sanctuary.

Many observers stereotype Islam and its scripture as inherently extreme or violent – a narrative that has overshadowed the truth of its roots. In this masterfully told account, preeminent Middle East expert Juan Cole takes us back to Islam’s-and the Prophet Muhammad’s-origin story.

Cole shows how Muhammad came of age in an era of unparalleled violence. The eastern Roman Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Iran fought savagely throughout the Near East and Asia Minor. Muhammad’s profound distress at the carnage of his times led him to envision an alternative movement, one firmly grounded in peace. The religion Muhammad founded, Islam, spread widely during his lifetime, relying on soft power instead of military might, and sought armistices even when militarily attacked. Cole sheds light on this forgotten history, reminding us that in the Qur’an, the legacy of that spiritual message endures.

A vibrant history that brings to life the fascinating and complex world of the Prophet, Muhammad is the story of how peace is the rule and not the exception for one of the world’s most practiced religions.”

Here is an interesting interview with Juan Cole about his book:

https://www.juancole.com/2018/10/muhammad-peace-jews.html

How hadiths insult and demonise the Prophet

How hadiths insult and demonise the Prophet

 
In our study on The Muhammad of the Quran, along with True Muhammad versus False Muhammad, we observed that Muhammad is better represented by the Quran – an existentialist document and an authenticated, contemporary diary that instantaneously records Muhammad’s ongoing experience during his prophetic mission to the Arabs and the world – rather than by all those legends, rumours and anecdotes of contradictory hadiths and sira, written centuries after his time on the basis of long chains of unreliable oral transmissions, distorted by amnesia, confabulations and conjectures, often with dubious motives and intentions.

Now, looking into all those recorded rumours and trashes contained in hadith books that both idolize and demonise the Prophet Muhammad, we can see why the Quran presaged the Hadith-whisperers as Prophet’s enemy (6:112; cf. 25:30-31; 7:194-204). And why the most aggressive weapon in the hands of the Islamophobes to attack Islam is Hadith.

The Quran testifies to the high moral character of Muhammad (e.g., 68:4). Contrast this with the examples below that demonstrate how hadiths, including the so-called sahih hadiths, constantly insult and demonise him:

  1. Muhammad is a torturer
  2. Muhammad is a plunderer
  3. Muhammad is a warmonger
  4. Muhammad is a mass murderer
  5. Muhammad is an aggressor
  6. Muhammad orders to burn people and houses with fire
  7. Muhammad orders to kill apostates
  8. Muhammad is a terrorist
  9. Muhammad orders to kill someone who posed no threat
  10. Muhammad allows killing through deception and lying
  11. Muhammad promotes rape of female captives of war
  12. Muhammad is a hate-preacher
  13. Muhammad is an anti-Semite
  14. Muhammad is suicidal
  15. Muhammad is bewitched
  16. Muhammad suffers from delusion and hallucination
  17. Muhammad is a megalomaniac
  18. Muhammad is a sex maniac
  19. Muhammad fondles his wives while in menses
  20. Muhammad promotes polygyny
  21. Muhammad is a wife beater
  22. Muhammad allows wife beating
  23. Muhammad is a male chauvinist
  24. Muhammad portrays women as inferior
  25. Muhammad makes women slaves to their husbands
  26. Muhammad insults and derogates women
  27. Muhammad is a rapist
  28. Muhammad is a homophobe
  29. Muhammad is a cross-dresser
  30. Muhammad is a deceiver
  31. Muhammad is a hypocrite
  32. Muhammad is a liar and oath-breaker
  33. Muhammad forgets his promise
  34. Muhammad is dispraised
  35. Muhammad is unjust and holds double standard
  36. Muhammad gives himself extra favours
  37. Muhammad is a nepotist
  38. Muhammad and his companions prosper through war booties
  39. Muhammad is a music hater
  40. Muhammad lacks sense of humour
  41. Muhammad laughs at genitals of a killed man
  42. Muhammad laughs while cursing Jews
  43. Muhammad laughs at someone’s dream of having head cut off
  44. Muhammad is a hater of art
  45. Muhammad breaks all statues, icons and images
  46. Muhammad asks to destroy heads of statues even if not idols
  47. Muhammad is a hater of dogs
  48. Muhammad is a paedophile
  49. Muhammad is a child abuser
  50. Muhammad is a child killer
  51. Muhammad promotes slavery and okays flogging of slaves
  52. Muhammad is a slave trader
  53. Muhammad calls debtors liars and promise-breakers
  54. Muhammad condones violence during prayer
  55. Muhammad makes contradictory comments
  56. Muhammad is a briber
  57. Muhammad is Mary’s Husband
  58. Muhammad is a racist
  59. Muhammad is a white man
  60. Muhammad is ungrateful
  61. Muhammad spits into drinks
  62. Muhammad spits on child’s face and mouth
  63. Muhammad spits into wounds
  64. Muhammad spits into eyes
  65. Muhammad spits on dead body
  66. Muhammad is dwarf and fat
  67. Muhammad is unclean and has lice in his head
  68. Muhammad makes unscientific statements
  69. Muhammad fabricates the Quran
  70. Muhammad discriminates between messengers

 

1. Muhammad is a torturer

Some people of ‘Ukl or ‘Uraina tribe came to Medina and its climate did not suit them. So the Prophet ordered them to go to the herd of (Milch) camels and to drink their milk and urine (as a medicine). So they went as directed and after they became healthy, they killed the shepherd of the Prophet and drove away all the camels. The news reached the Prophet early in the morning and he sent (men) in their pursuit and they were captured and brought at noon. He then ordered to cut their hands and feet (and it was done), and their eyes were branded with heated pieces of iron, They were put in ‘Al-Harra’ and when they asked for water, no water was given to them.” Narrated by Abu Qilaba, attributed to Anas. Bukhari 1:4:234; also Bukhari 7:71:590

The Messenger said, “Get him away from me and cut off his tongue.” Ishaq:595

2. Muhammad is a plunderer

The Prophet (sa) said, “My livelihood is under the shade of my spear, and he who disobeys my orders will be humiliated by paying Jizya.” Footnote: “Under the shade of my spear” means “from war booty”. Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar. Bukhari 4:88

3. Muhammad is a warmonger

Expeditions Led by Allah’s Messenger: In this year, according to all Sira writers, the Messenger personally led the Ghazwa of Alwa. (A Ghazwa is an Islamic Invasion in Allah’s cause consisting of an army unit led by the Prophet himself.) He left Sa’d in command of Medina. On this raid his banner was carried by Hamzah. He stayed out for fifteen days and then returned to Medina. The Messenger went on a Ghazwa at the head of two hundred of his companions in October, 623 and reached Buwat. His intention was to intercept a Quraysh caravan with a hundred men and twenty-five hundred camels. Tabari, Vol.7, p.15

4. Muhammad is a mass murderer

The Jews were made to come down, and Allah’s Messenger imprisoned them. Then the Prophet went out into the marketplace of Medina, and he had trenches dug in it. He sent for the Jewish men and had them beheaded in those trenches. They were brought out to him in batches. They numbered 800 to 900 boys and men. Ishaq 464; also Bukhari 5:59:362 and Muslim 19:4364

5. Muhammad is an aggressor

God’s Messenger said: “I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform that, then they save their lives and property from me except for Islamic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allah.” Reported by Ibn Umar. Bukhari 1:2:24

6. Muhammad orders to burn people and houses with fire

Allah’s Messenger sent us in a mission (i.e. an army-unit) and said, “If you find so-and-so and so-and-so, burn both of them with fire.” When we intended to depart, Allah’s Messenger said, “I have ordered you to burn so-and-so and so-and-so, and it is none but Allah Who punishes with fire, so, if you find them, kill them.” Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:52:259

The Prophet said, “Certainly I decided to order the Mu’adh-dhin (call-maker) to pronounce Iqama and order a man to lead the prayer and then take a fire flame to burn all those who had not left their houses so far for the prayer along with their houses.” Narrated Abu Huraira. Bukhari 1:11:626

7. Muhammad orders to kill apostates

The Prophet said, “If somebody (a Muslim) discards his religion, kill him.” Reported by Ikrima, attributed to Ali. Bukhari 4:52:260

Allah’s Messenger (sa) said, “The blood of a Muslim who confesses that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that I am His Apostle, cannot be shed except in three cases: In Qisas for murder, a married person who commits illegal sexual intercourse and the one who reverts from Islam (apostate) and leaves the Muslims.” Narrated by `Abdullah. Bukhari 9:83:17

Allah’s Apostle said, “During the last days there will appear some young foolish people who will say the best words but their faith will not go beyond their throats (i.e. they will have no faith) and will go out from (leave) their religion as an arrow goes out of the game. So, where-ever you find them, kill them, for who-ever kills them shall have reward on the Day of Resurrection.” Narrated by ‘Ali. Bukhari 9:84:64

8. Muhammad is a terrorist

Allah’s Messenger said, “I have been sent with the shortest expressions bearing the widest meanings, and I have been made victorious with terror (cast in the hearts of the enemy), and while I was sleeping, the keys of the treasures of the world were brought to me and put in my hand.” Abu Huraira added: Allah’s Messenger has left the world and now you, people, are bringing out those treasures (i.e. the Prophet did not benefit by them). Narrated Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:52:220

9. Muhammad orders to kill someone who posed no threat

An infidel spy came to the Prophet while he was on a journey. The spy sat with the companions of the Prophet and started talking and then went away. The Prophet said (to his companions), “Chase and kill him.” So, I killed him. The Prophet then gave him the belongings of the killed spy (in addition to his share of the war booty). Narrated Salama bin Al-Akwa. Bukhari 4:52:286

10. Muhammad allows killing through deception and lying

The Prophet said, “Who is ready to kill Ka’b bin Ashraf (i.e. a Jew).” Muhammad bin Maslama replied, “Do you like me to kill him?” The Prophet replied in the affirmative. Muhammad bin Maslama said, “Then allow me to say what I like.” The Prophet replied, “I do (i.e. allow you).” Narrated Jabir. Bukhari 4:52:271

11. Muhammad promotes rape of female captives of war

We got female captives in the war booty and we used to do coitus interruptus with them. So we asked Allah’s Messenger about it and he said, “Do you really do that?” repeating the question thrice, “There is no soul that is destined to exist but will come into existence, till the Day of Resurrection.” Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri. Bukhari 7:62:137

Narrated Buraida: The prophet sent Ali to Khalid to bring the Khumus ((one fifth) of the booty) and I hated Ali, and Ali had taken a bath (after a sexual act with a slave girl from the Khumus). I said to Khalid, “Don’t you see this (i.e. Ali)?” When we reached the prophet I mentioned that to him. He said, “O Buraida! Do you hate Ali?” I said, “Yes” He said, “Do you hate him, for he deserves more than that from the Khumus.” Bukhari 5:59:637

12. Muhammad is a hate-preacher

The Prophet said: The best of the actions is to love for the sake of Allah and to hate for the sake of Allah. Abu Dawud 40:4582

The Prophet said: If anyone loves for Allah’s sake, hates for Allah’s sake, gives for Allah’s sake and withholds for Allah’s sake, he will have perfect faith. Narrated by Abu Umamah. Abu Dawud 40:4664

Allah’s Messenger said: Do not salute them (non-Muslims) first, and when you meet them on the road, force them to go to the narrowest part of it. Reported by Abu Hurayrah. Abu Dawud 41:5186; also Muslim 26:5389 and 26:5390

13. Muhammad is an anti-Semite

The Messenger (sa) said: The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will fight against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim, or the servant of Allah, there is a Jew behind me; come and kill him. Narrated Abu Huraira. Muslim 41:6985, Bukhari 4:56:791

The Prophet said, “A group of Israelites were lost. Nobody knows what they did. But I do not see them except that they were cursed and changed into rats, for if you put the milk of a she-camel in front of a rat, it will not drink it, but if the milk of a sheep is put in front of it, it will drink it.” Narrated Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:54:524

The Prophet burned the garden of date palms of (the Jewish tribe) Bani an-Nadir. Reported by Ibn Umar. Bukhari 4:52:263

14. Muhammad is suicidal

After a few days Waraqa died and the Divine Inspiration was also paused for a while and the Prophet became so sad as we have heard that he intended several times to throw himself from the tops of high mountains and every time he went up the top of a mountain in order to throw himself down, Gabriel would appear before him and say, “O Muhammad! You are indeed Allah’s Messenger in truth” whereupon his heart would become quiet and he would calm down and would return home. And whenever the period of the coming of the inspiration used to become long, he would do as before, but when he used to reach the top of a mountain, Gabriel would appear before him and say to him what he had said before. Bukhari 9:87:111

15. Muhammad is bewitched

Once the Prophet was bewitched so that he began to imagine that he had done a thing which in fact he had not done. Narrated Aisha. Bukhari 4:53:400

A Jew from Banu Zuraiq who was called Labid b. al-A’sam cast spell upon Allah’s Messenger (sa) with the result that he felt that he had been doing something whereas in fact he had not been doing that. (This state of affairs lasted) until one day or during one night Allah’s Messenger (sa) made supplication (to dispel its effects). Reported by A’isha. Muslim 26:5428

16. Muhammad suffers from delusion and hallucination

Jabir b. Samura reported Allah’s Messenger (sa) as saying: I recognise the stone in Mecca which used to pay me salutations before my advent as a Prophet and I recognise that even now. Muslim 30:5654

Narrated ‘Aisha: Allah’s Messenger said, “O Aisha! This is Gabriel sending his greetings to you.” I said, “Peace, and Allah’s Mercy be on him.” ‘Aisha added: The Prophet used to see things which we used not to see. Bukhari 8:73:220

17. Muhammad is a megalomaniac

The Prophet said: None of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father, his children and all mankind. Narrated Anas. Bukhari 1:2:14; also Bukhari 1:2:13

Narrated Abu Said Al-Mualla: While I was praying, the Prophet passed by and called me, but I did not go to him till I had finished my prayer. When I went to him, he said, “What prevented you from coming?” I said, “I was praying.” He said, “Didn’t Allah say: O you who believes Give your response to Allah and to His Messenger (8.24)?” Bukhari 6:60:226; also Bukhari 6:60:1 and Bukhari 6:60:170

The Prophet said: I have been given five things which were not given to any one else before me. 1. Allah made me victorious by awe by His terrorizing my enemies. 2. The earth has been made for me. 3. Booty has been made lawful for me yet it was not lawful for anyone else before me. 4. I have been given the right of intercession. 5. Every Prophet used to be sent to his nation only but I have been sent to all mankind. Bukhari 1.331

18. Muhammad is a sex maniac

The Prophet used to pass by (have sexual relation with) all his wives in one night, and at that time he had nine wives. Narrated Anas bin Malik. Bukhari 7:62:142

Anas bin Malik said: “The Prophet used to visit all his wives in a round, during the day and night and they were eleven in number.” I asked Anas, “Had the Prophet the strength for it?” Anas replied, “We used to say that the Prophet was given the strength of thirty (men).” Narrated Qatada. Bukhari 1:5:268

Allah’s Messenger (sa) saw a woman, and so he came to his wife, Zainab, as she was tanning a leather and had sexual intercourse with her. He then went to his Companions and told them: The woman advances and retires in the shape of a devil, so when one of you sees a woman, he should come to his wife, for that will repel what he feels in his heart. Narrated Jabir. Muslim 8:3240

Then we reached Khaibar; and when Allah enabled him to conquer the Fort (of Khaibar), the beauty of Safiya bint Huyai bin Akhtab was described to him. Her husband had been killed while she was a bride. So Allah’s Messenger selected her for himself and … took her for his wife. Narrated Anas bin Malik. Bukhari 4:52:143

19. Muhammad fondles his wives while in menses

‘Aisha said, “Whenever Allah’s Apostle wanted to fondle anyone of us during her periods (menses), he used to order her to put on an Izar and start fondling her.” ‘Aisha added, “None of you could control his sexual desires as the Prophet could.” Reported by Abdur-Rahman bin Al-Aswad on the authority of his father. Bukhari 1:6:299

20. Muhammad promotes polygyny

The Prophet said, “Solomon (the son of) David said, ‘Tonight I will sleep with seventy ladies each of whom will conceive a child who will be a knight fighting for “Allah’s Cause.’ His companion said, ‘If Allah will.’ But Solomon did not say so; therefore none of those women got pregnant except one who gave birth to a half child.” The Prophet further said, “If the Prophet Solomon had said it (i.e. ‘If Allah will’) he would have begotten children who would have fought in Allah’s Cause.” Shuaib and Ibn Abi Az-Zinad said, “Ninety (women) is more correct (than seventy).” Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:55:635

Narrated Said bin Jubair: Ibn ‘Abbas asked me, “Are you married?” I replied, “No.” He said, “Marry, for the best person (i.e., Muhammad) of this nation of all Muslims, had the largest number of wives.” Bukhari 7:62:7

21. Muhammad is a wife beater

Narrated ‘A’isha: The Messenger of Allah (sa) … struck me on the chest which caused me pain (when she left the house one evening without his permission). Muslim 4:2127

22. Muhammad allows wife beating

The Prophet (sa) said: A man will not be asked as to why he beat his wife. Narrated Umar ibn al-Khattab. Abu Dawud 11:2142 and 11:2141; also Ibn Majah 3:9:1986

A woman came to the messenger and begged him to stop her husband from beating her. Her skin was bruised so badly that it was greener than the green veil she was wearing. The messenger did not admonish her husband, but instead told her to return to him and submit to him as long as he is not impotent. On seeing her bruises, Aisha said, ‘I have not seen any woman suffering as much as the believing women’. (summarised) Bukhari 7:72:715; also Muslim 4:2127

When Umar came to the messenger of Allah (sa) and said: Women have become emboldened towards their husbands, he gave permission to beat them. Reported by Iyas bin ‘Abd Allah bin Abi Dhubab. Abu Dawud 2141; also Ibn Majah 9:1985

23. Muhammad is a male chauvinist

Allah’s Messenger said, “Evil omen is in the women, the house and the horse.” Narrated Abdullah bin ‘Umar. Bukhari 7:62:30; also Bukhari 7:62:31 and 7:62:32

“After me I have not left any affliction more harmful to men than women.” Narrated Usama bin Zaid, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:33

“I stood at the gate of Paradise and saw that the majority of the people who entered it were the poor … Then I stood at the gate of the Fire and saw that the majority of those who entered it were women.” Narrated by Usama, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:124

The tradition (of the Prophet) is that if someone marries a virgin and he has already a matron wife (with him), then he should stay with the virgin for seven days; and if someone marries a matron (and he has already a virgin wife with him) then he should stay with her for three days. Narrated by Anas. Bukhari 7:62:140

When the Prophet heard the news that the people of the Persia had made the daughter of Khosrau their Queen (ruler), he said, “Never will succeed such a nation as makes a woman their ruler.” Narrated by Abu Bakra. Bukhari 92:50

24. Muhammad portrays women as inferior

The Prophet said (to some women), “Is not the evidence of two women equal to the witness of one man?” They replied in the affirmative. He said, “This is the deficiency in her intelligence. Isn’t it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during her menses?” The women replied in the affirmative. He said, “This is the deficiency in her religion.” Narrated by Abu Said Al-Khudri. Bukhari 1:6:301

The Prophet said (to some women), “Isn’t the witness of a woman equal to half of that of a man?” The women said, “Yes.” He said, “This is because of the deficiency of a woman’s mind.” Narrated by Abu Said Al-Khudri. Bukhari 3:48:826

25. Muhammad makes women slaves to their husbands

“A woman should not fast except with her husband’s permission if he is at home (staying with her).” Narrated by Abu Huraira, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:120

“If a man invites his wife to sleep with him and she refuses to come to him, then the angels send their curses on her till morning.” Narrated by Abu Huraira, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:121

“If a woman spends the night deserting her husband’s bed (does not sleep with him), then the angels send their curses on her till she comes back (to her husband).” Narrated by Abu Huraira, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:122

“It is not lawful for anyone to prostrate to anyone. But if I would have ordered any person to prostrate to another, I would have commanded wives to prostrate to their husbands because of the enormity of the rights of husbands over their wives.” Ibn Majah 1:595

“No human should prostrate to another, and if it were permissible for a human to prostrate to another I would have ordered a wife to prostrate to her husband because of the enormity of his rights over her. By God, if there is an ulcer excreting puss from his feet to the top of his head, and she licked it for him she would not fulfill her rights.” Reported by Anas b. Malik, attributed to the Prophet. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad 3:200

“If a woman dies while her husband was pleased with her, she will enter Paradise.” Narrated by Umm Salamah, attributed to the Prophet. Tirmidhi 286

26. Muhammad insults and derogates women

“Prayer is invalidated by (the passage of) a woman, a donkey and a dog.” Narrated by Abu Hurayrah, attributed to the Prophet. Muslim 511; also Bukhari 1:9:490

“Finding a good woman among women is similar to finding a white crow among a hundred crows.” Attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari, Ahmad b. Hanbal’s Musnad, Nisa’I, cited by al-Ghazali

“If the body of the husband is covered with pus and his wife licks it with her tongue, she still will not be able to pay her debt to him.” Attributed to the Prophet. Ahmad b. Hanbal’s Musnad, 12153; al-Jaami’, 7725

“The woman is like a rib; if you try to straighten her, she will break. So if you want to get benefit from her, do so while she still has some crookedness.” Narrated by Abu Huraira, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:113

“I advise you to take care of the women, for they are created from a rib and the most crooked portion of the rib is its upper part; if you try to straighten it, it will break, and if you leave it, it will remain crooked, so I urge you to take care of the women.” Narrated by Abu Huraira, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:114

“The stipulations most entitled to be abided by are those with which you are given the right to enjoy the (women’s) private parts (i.e. the stipulations of the marriage contract).” Narrated by ‘Uqba, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:81

27. Muhammad is a rapist

When Allah’s Messenger saw her (Safiya), he said (to Dihya): Take any other woman from among the prisoners. … He then granted her emancipation and married her (Muhammad takes Safiya after battle of Khaibar for himself from Dihya who had already chosen her). Muslim 008:3325. A long narration of this alleged event is also found in Bukhari 1:8:367

28. Muhammad is a homophobe

The Prophet (sa) said: There is nothing I fear for my ummah more than the deed of the people of Loot. Narrated by Jaabir. Tirmidhi 1457

29. Muhammad is a cross-dresser

The Prophet said (to Um Salamah): O Um Salama! Do not hurt me with Aisha; for by Allah, the inspiration did not descent on me while I was in the coverings (lihaf) of any of you (women) except Aisha. Narrated by Abdullah ibn Abdel Wahab. Bukhari 3941

30. Muhammad is a deceiver

I am the best of plotters. I deceived them with My guile so that I delivered you from them. Ishaq:323

31. Muhammad is a hypocrite

The Messenger of Allah forbade facing the Qiblah when urinating. But I saw him, one year before he died, facing the Qiblah (while urinating). Narrated by Jabir. Ibn Majah 1:325:1

The Prophet got married while he was in the state of Ihram. Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas. Bukhari 7:62:49 (in a state of ihram, the focus should be God, not marriage)

32. Muhammad is a liar and oath-breaker

We stayed for a short while, and then I said to my companions, “Allah’s Messenger has forgotten his oath. By Allah, if we do not remind Allah’s Messenger of his oath, we will never be successful.” So we returned to the Prophet and said, “O Allah’s Messenger! We asked you for mounts, but you took an oath that you would not give us any mounts; we think that you have forgotten your oath.’ He said, ‘It is Allah Who has given you mounts. By Allah, and Allah willing, if I take an oath and later find something else better than that then I do what is better and expiate my oath.’ Narrated by Zahdam. Bukhari 7:67:427

33. Muhammad forgets his promise

They came to the messenger and called upon him to answer these questions. He said to them, ‘I will give you your answer tomorrow,’ but he did not say, ‘if God will.’ So they went away; and the messenger, so they say, waited for fifteen days without a revelation from God on the matter, nor did Gabriel come to him, so that the people of Mecca began to spread evil reports, saying, ‘Muhammad promised us an answer on the morrow, and today is the fifteenth day we have remained without an answer.’ Sirat Rasul Allah, p. 133

34. Muhammad is dispraised

Allah’s Messenger said: Doesn’t it astonish you how Allah protects me from the Quraish’s abusing and cursing? They abuse Mudhammam and curse Mudhammam while I am Muhammad (and not Mudhammam). Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:56:733

35. Muhammad is unjust and holds double standard

If one murders a Muslim, he should be killed for retribution, but if he murders a disbeliever, he is fine and no retribution is required:

The Messenger of Allah said: It is not permissible to kill a Muslim except in one of three cases: A adulterer who has been married, who is to be stoned; a man who kills a Muslim deliberately; and a man who leaves Islam and wages war against Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, and His Messenger, who is to be killed, crucified or banished from the land. Narrated by ‘Aishah. Nasa’i 5:45:4747

The Prophet (sa) said: A believer should not be killed in retaliation for the murder of a disbeliever, and a person who has a treaty should not be killed during the time of the treaty. Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas. Ibn Majah 3:21:2660

36. Muhammad gives himself extra favours

Muhammad is teased by his wife when he allegedly gives himself extra privileges and immunities, through convenient revelations:

Narrated Aisha: I used to look down upon those ladies who had given themselves to Allah’s Messenger and I used to say, “Can a lady give herself (to a man)?” But when Allah revealed: “You (O Muhammad) can postpone (the turn of) whom you will of them (your wives), and you may receive any of them whom you will; and there is no blame on you if you invite one whose turn you have set aside (temporarily).’ (33.51) I said (to the Prophet), “I feel that your Lord hastens in fulfilling your wishes and desires.” Bukhari 6:60:311

37. Muhammad is a nepotist

I heard Allah’s Messenger who was on the pulpit, saying, “Banu Hisham bin Al-Mughira have requested me to allow them to marry their daughter to Ali bin Abu Talib, but I don’t give permission, and will not give permission unless ‘Ali bin Abi Talib divorces my daughter in order to marry their daughter, because Fatima is a part of my body, and I hate what she hates to see, and what hurts her, hurts me.” Narrated by Al-Miswar bin Makhrama. Bukhari 7:62:157

38. Muhammad and his companions prosper through war booties

Whenever a dead man in debt was brought to Allah’s Messenger he would ask, “Has he left anything to repay his debt?” If he was informed that he had left something to repay his debts, he would offer his funeral prayer, otherwise he would tell the Muslims to offer their friend’s funeral prayer. When Allah made the Prophet wealthy through conquests, he said, “I am more rightful than other believers to be the guardian of the believers, so if a Muslim dies while in debt, I am responsible for the repayment of his debt, and whoever leaves wealth (after his death) it will belong to his heirs.” Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 3:37:495

One of the arguments put forward by Umar was that he said that the Messenger of Allah (sa) received three things exclusively to himself: Banu an-Nadir, Khaybar and Fadak. The Banu an-Nadir property was kept wholly for his emergent needs, Fadak for travellers, and Khaybar was divided by the Messenger of Allah (sa) into three sections: two for Muslims, and one as a contribution for his family. If anything remained after making the contribution of his family, he divided it among the poor Emigrants. Narrated by Umar ibn al-Khattab, attributed to Malik ibn Aws al-Hadthan. Abu Dawud 19:2961

Whenever Allah’s Messenger (sa) ordered us to give in charity, we used to go to the market and work as porters and get a Mudd (a special measure of grain) and then give it in charity. (Those were the days of poverty) and today some of us have one hundred thousand. Narrated by Abu Masud Al-Ansar. Bukhari 2:24:497

39. Muhammad is a music hater

The Messenger of Allah said: Among my ummah there will certainly be people who permit zinaa, silk, alcohol and musical instruments… Bukhari 75:5590

Allah’s Messenger (sa) said: The bell is the flute of Satan. Reported by Abu Huraira. Muslim 024:5279; Abu Dawud

The Messenger of Allah said: When my Ummah begin doing fifteen things, they will be inflicted with tribulations, and (from those 15 things He said): When female singers and musical instruments become common. Reported by Ali ibn Talib. Tirmidhi

The Messenger of Allah said: Song makes hypocrisy grow in the heart as water does herbage. Reported by Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud. Bayhaqi

The Messenger of Allah said: On the day of Resurrection, Allah will pour molten lead into the ears of whoever sits listening to a songstress. Reported by Anas. Ibn Asakir & Ibn al-Misri

Ibn ‘Umar heard a woodwind instrument, and he put his fingers in his ears and kept away from that path. He said to me, O Naafi’, can you hear anything? I said, No. So he took his fingers away from his ears and said: I was with the Prophet (sa) and he heard something like this, and he did the same thing. Narrated by Naafi’. Abu Dawud

40. Muhammad lacks sense of humour

The Prophet (sa) said: If you knew that which I know, you would laugh little and weep much. Narrated by Anas. Bukhari 8:76:493

41. Muhammad laughs at genitals of a killed man

When a polytheist set fire to (i. e. attacked fiercely) the Muslims, Allah’s Messenger (sa) said to him (Sa’d): shoot an arrow. (Sa’d said) … I drew an arrow and I shot a featherless arrow at him aiming his side that he fell down and his private parts were exposed. Allah’s Messenger (sa) laughed that I saw his front teeth. Reported by ‘Amir b. Sa’d on the authority of his father. Muslim 31:5932

42. Muhammad laughs while cursing Jews

Ibn ‘Abbas reported: I saw the Messenger of Allah (sa) sitting neat the Black stone (or at a corner of the Ka’bah). He said: He (the Prophet) raised his eyes towards the heaven, and laughed, and he said: May Allah curse the Jews! He said this three times. Abu Dawud 23:3481

43. Muhammad laughs at someone’s dream of having head cut off

Jabir reported that a person came to Allah’s Messenger (sa) and said: Allah’s Messenger, I have seen in the state of sleep as if my head had been cut off. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (sa) laughed and said: When the satan plays with any one of you in the state of sleep, do not mention it to the people. Muslim 29:5642

44. Muhammad is a hater of art

I heard the Messenger of Allaah (sa) say: The people who will be the most severely punished before Allah on the Day of Resurrection will be the image makers. Narrated by ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood. Bukhari 5606; Muslim 2109

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: Those who make these images will be punished on the Day of Resurrection. It will be said to them, Give life to that which you have created! Narrated by ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar. Bukhari 5607; Muslim 2108

The Messenger of Allah (sa) said: Allah, Most High said: And who is more unjust than those who try to create the likeness of My creation? Let them create a seed or a small ant! Narrated by Abu Hurairah. Bukhari 5609; Muslim 2111

45. Muhammad breaks all statues, icons and images

The Messenger of Allah never left in his house anything containing the figure of a cross without destroying it. Narrated by ‘Aisha. Abu Dawud 34:132

Ali said to Abu Al-Hayyaj Al-Asadi: I am dispatching you with what the Prophet dispatched me: That you not leave an elevated grave without levelling it nor an image without erasing it. Narrated by Abu Wa’il. Jami at-Tirmidhi 10:85

The Prophet entered Mecca and (at that time) there were three hundred-and-sixty idols around the Ka’ba. He started stabbing the idols with a stick he had in his hand and reciting: “Truth (Islam) has come and Falsehood (disbelief) has vanished.” Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin Masud. Bukhari 3:43:658

46. Muhammad asks to destroy heads of statues even if not idols

The Messenger of Allah said: Gabriel came to me and said: I came to you last night and was prevented from entering simply because there were images at the door, for there was a decorated curtain with images on it in the house, and there was a dog in the house. So order the head of the image which is in the house to be cut off so that it resembles the form of a tree; order the curtain to be cut up and made into two cushions spread out on which people may tread; and order the dog to be turned out. The Messenger of Allah then did so. Narrated by Abu Hurayrah. Abu Dawud 34:139

47. Muhammad is a hater of dogs

The Prophet said: Angels do not enter a house which has either a dog or a picture in it. Narrated by Abu Talha. Bukhari 4:54:539

Allah’s Messenger ordered that the dogs should be killed. Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar. Bukhari 4:54:540

Allah’s Messenger said: If somebody keeps a dog, he loses one Qirat (of the reward) of his good deeds everyday, except if he keeps it for the purpose of agriculture or for the protection of livestock. Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:54:541

48. Muhammad is a paedophile

A’isha reported: Allah’s Messenger married me when I was six years old, and I was admitted to his house when I was nine years old. Muslim 8:3310

49. Muhammad is a child abuser

The Prophet (sa) said: Command a boy to pray when he reaches the age of seven years. When he becomes ten years old, then beat him for prayer. Narrated by As-Saburah. Abu Dawud 2:494 and 2:495

50. Muhammad is a child killer

Narrated Atiyyah al-Qurazi: I was among the captives of Banu Qurayzah. They (the Companions) examined us, and those who had begun to grow hair (pubes) were killed, and those who had not were not killed. I was among those who had not grown hair. Muslim 38:4390

Narrated As-Sab bin Jaththama: The Prophet passed by me at a place called Al-Abwa or Waddan, and was asked whether it was permissible to attack the pagan warriors at night with the probability of exposing their women and children to danger. The Prophet replied, “They (i.e. women and children) are from them (i.e. pagans).” Bukhari 4:52:256

51. Muhammad promotes slavery and okays flogging of slaves

The Prophet said: If a slave serves his master sincerely and worships his Lord (Allah) perfectly, he will get a double reward. Reported by Abdullah. Bukhari 3:46:726; also Bukhari 3:46:722, Bukhari 3:46:727

The Prophet said: None of you should flog his wife as he flogs a slave and then have sexual intercourse with her in the last part of the day. Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin Sam’a. Bukhari, 7:62:132; also Bukhari, 8:73:68

52. Muhammad is a slave trader

A man pledged that his slave would be manumitted after his death. The Prophet asked, “Who will buy the slave from me?” No’aim bin ‘Abdullah bought the slave and the Prophet took its price and gave it to the owner. Narrated by Jabir bin ‘Abdullah. Bukhari 3:41:588

53. Muhammad calls debtors liars and promise-breakers

The Prophet said, “A person in debt tells lies whenever he speaks, and breaks promises whenever he makes (them).” Reported by Aisha. Bukhari 1:12:795

54. Muhammad condones violence during prayer

The Prophet said: If while you are praying, somebody intends to pass in front of you, prevent him; and should he insist, prevent him again; and if he insists again, fight with him (i.e. prevent him violently e.g. pushing him violently), because such a person is (like) a devil. Narrated by Abu Said Al-Khudri. Bukhari 4:54:495

55. Muhammad makes contradictory comments

Two men came from the east and delivered speeches, and the Prophet (sa) said: Some eloquent speech has the influence of magic. Bukhari 7:62:76

The Prophet (sa) said: I have been given the keys of eloquent speech and given victory with terror. Bukhari 9:87:127

But elsewhere he allegedly condemns people who are gifted with this magic of eloquent speech:

The Messenger of Allah (sa) said: Allah the Exalted hates the eloquent one among men who moves his tongue round, as cattle do. Abu Dawood 5005

56. Muhammad is a briber

So the Quraish and the Ansar became angry and said, “He (i.e. the Prophet) gives the chief of Najd and does not give us.” The Prophet said, “I give them so as to attract their hearts (to Islam). Bukhari 4:55:558

57. Muhammad is Mary’s Husband

The Messenger said: In heaven, Mary mother of Jesus, will be one of my wives. al-Siyuti 6/395

The Messenger said: God married me in paradise to Mary the daughter of ‘Imran and to the wife of Pharaoh and the sister of Moses. Tabarani

58. Muhammad is a racist

Allah’s Messenger said, “You should listen to and obey, your ruler even if he was an Ethiopian slave whose head looks like a raisin.” Narrated by Anas bin Malik. Bukhari 9:89:256; also Bukhari 1:11:662 and 1:11:664

59. Muhammad is a white man

While we were sitting with the Prophet in the mosque, a man came riding on a camel. He made his camel kneel down in the mosque, tied its foreleg and then said: “Who amongst you is Muhammad?” At that time the Prophet was sitting amongst us leaning on his arm. We replied, “This white man reclining on his arm.” The man then addressed him, “O Son of ‘Abdul Muttalib.”… Narrated by Anas bin Malik. Bukhari 1:3:63

60. Muhammad is ungrateful

People used to come from their abodes and from Al-‘Awali (i.e. outskirts of Medina up to a distance of four miles or more from Medina). They used to pass through dust and used to be drenched with sweat and covered with dust; so sweat used to trickle from them. One of them came to Allah’s Messenger who was in my house. The Prophet said to him, “I wish that you keep yourself clean on this day of yours (i.e. take a bath).” Narrated by Aisha. Bukhari 2:13:25

61. Muhammad spits into drinks

Then Allah’s Messenger (sa) called for a cup of water and washed his hands in that and face too and put the saliva in it and then said: Drink out of it and pour it over your faces and over your chest and gladden yourselves. Muslim 44:236

62. Muhammad spits on child’s face and mouth

Narrated Mahmud bin Rabi`a: When I was a boy of five, I remember, the Prophet (sa) took water from a bucket with his mouth and threw it on my face. Bukhari 1:3:77

The first child born in the Islamic Land (i.e. Medina) amongst the Emigrants was `Abdullah bin Az-Zubair. They brought him to the Prophet. The Prophet (sa) took a date, and after chewing it, put its juice in his mouth. So the first thing that went into the child’s stomach, was the saliva of the Prophet. Narrated by Aisha. Bukhari 5:58:249; also Muslim 2148

63. Muhammad spits into wounds

Narrated Yazid bin Abi Ubaid: I saw the trace of a wound in Salama’s leg. I said to him, “O Abu Muslim! What is this wound?” He said, “This was inflicted on me on the day of Khaibar and the people said, ‘Salama has been wounded.’ Then I went to the Prophet (sa) and he puffed his saliva in it (i.e. the wound) thrice, and since then I have not had any pain in it till this hour.” Bukhari 5:59:517

64. Muhammad spits into eyes

They said: Allah’s Messenger, his (‘Ali’s) eyes are sore. He then sent for him and he was brought and Allah’s Messenger (sa) applied saliva to his eyes and invoked blessings and he was all right. Reported by Sahl b. Sa’d. Muslim 44:53

65. Muhammad spits on dead body

The Prophet (sa) came to (the grave of) `Abdullah bin Ubai after his body was buried. The body was brought out and then the Prophet (sa) put his saliva over the body and clothed it in his shirt. Narrated by Jabir. Bukhari 2:23:360

66. Muhammad is dwarf and fat

I saw AbuBarzah who came to visit Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad. Then a man named Muslim who was there in the company mentioned it to me. When Ubaydullah saw him, he said: This Muhammad of yours is a dwarf and fat. The old man (i.e. AbuBarzah) understood it. So he said: I did not think that I should remain among people who would make me feel ashamed of the company of Muhammad (sa). Thereupon Ubaydullah said: The company of Muhammad (sa) is a honour for you, not a disgrace. Narrated by AbuBarzah, attributed to AbdusSalam ibn AbuHazim AbuTalut. Abu Dawud 40:4731

The messenger made for a rock on the mountain to climb it. He had become heavy by reason of his age, and moreover he had put on two coats of mail, so when he tried to get up he could not do so. Talha b. ‘Ubaydullah squatted beneath him and lifted him up until he settled comfortably upon it. Ibn Ishaq

67. Muhammad is unclean and has lice in his head

Allah’s Messenger used to visit Um Haram bint Milhan, who would offer him meals. Um-Haram was the wife of Ubada bin As-Samit. Allah’s Messenger, once visited her and she provided him with food and started looking for lice in his head. Narrated by Anas bin Malik. Bukhari 4:52:47

68. Muhammad makes unscientific statements

The Prophet said: If a housefly falls in the drink of anyone of you, he should dip it (in the drink), for one of its wings has a disease and the other has the cure for the disease. Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:54:537

Allah’s Messenger said: The first portent of the Hour will be a fire that will bring together the people from the east to the west; the first meal of the people of Paradise will be Extra-lobe (caudate lobe) of fish-liver. As for the resemblance of the child to its parents: If a man has sexual intercourse with his wife and gets discharge first, the child will resemble the father, and if the woman gets discharge first, the child will resemble her. Narrated by Anas. Bukhari 4:55:546

The Prophet said: Fever is from the heat of the hellfire; so abate fever with water. Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar. Bukhari 4:54:486

Narrated Abu Dharr: I was sitting behind the Messenger of Allah who was riding a donkey while the sun was setting. He asked: Do you know where this sets? I replied: Allah and his Apostle know best. He said: It sets in a spring of warm water. Abu Dawud 4:32:3991

69. Muhammad fabricates the Quran

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar: During the lifetime of the Prophet we used to avoid chatting leisurely and freely with our wives lest some Divine inspiration might be revealed concerning us. But when the Prophet had died, we started chatting leisurely and freely (with them). Bukhari 7:62:115

70. Muhammad discriminates between messengers

The Prophet said: I am the most honourable messenger; on the Day of Judgement only I will think of my people. Bukhari 97:36

A Muslim and a Jew quarreled. The Muslim taking an oath, said, “By Him Who has preferred Muhammad over all people…!” The Jew said, “By Him Who has preferred Moses, over all people.” The Muslim raised his hand and slapped the Jew who came to the Prophet to tell him what had happened between him and the Muslim. The Prophet said, “Don’t give me superiority over Moses, for the people will become unconscious (on the Day of Resurrection) and I will be the first to gain consciousness to see Moses standing and holding a side of Allah’s Throne. I will not know if he has been among those people who have become unconscious; and that he has gained consciousness before me, or he has been amongst those whom Allah has exempted.” Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:55:620

 

The Quran calls for peace and tolerance: verse examples

 

Here are some of the verses referred to in our study Quran, the messenger of peace and tolerance:

Surely those who acknowledge, and those who are Jews, and Christians, and who are from other religions, whoever acknowledges God and the Last Day and does right, surely their reward is with their Sustainer, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. 2:62

Forgive them and overlook until God brings His will: certainly God is capable of all things. 2:109

And they say: None enters paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian. These are their own wishes. Say: Produce an evidence for what you are claiming, if you are truthful./ Nay, whoever submits himself to God and is a doer of good, he shall get his reward with his Sustainer; on such shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. 2:111-112

And the Jews say, “The Christians are based on nothing”, and the Christians say, “The Jews are based on nothing”,  while they both recite the Book! Similarly, those who do not know say the same; but God will judge between them on the day of Resurrection in what they disputed. 2:113

And who could be more evil than those who prohibit God’s temples of worship so that His name not be commemorated therein and strive for their ruin? – while they ought not to enter therein except fearfully …/ To God belongs the East and the West, so wherever you turn, there is God’s presence. Behold, God is all-encompassing, all-knowing. 2:114-115

They said: Be Jews or Christians so that you may be guided! Say: No, rather the creed of Abraham the upright, who turned away from all that is false; for he was not of those who set up partners./ Say: We acknowledge God, and that which is revealed unto us, and to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Patriarchs, and that which was given to Moses and Jesus, and that which was given to all the other prophets from their Sustainer. 2:135-136

Or do you say that Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the Patriarchs were all Jewish or Christians (or e.g., Muhammadans)? Say: Do you know more than God does? Who is more wicked than one who conceals the testimony (‘shahada’) with him from God? But God is not unmindful of what you do./ That was a community that passed away; to them is what they earned and to you is what you have earned; you will not be asked about what they did. 2:140-141

And thus have We made you a balanced nation so that you may be witness over the people, and that the messenger may be witness over you. And We made the focal point that you came on only to distinguish who follows the messenger from those who will turn on their heels. 2:143

And to each is a direction to which he turns: so race each other in good works. Wherever you may be, God will bring you all together. Indeed God is capable of all things. 2:148

And do not consume one another’s possessions wrongfully by bribing the decision-makers so that you may consume a part of other people’s belongings illicitly and knowingly. 2:188

And fight in the cause of God against those who wage war against you, but do not aggress, for God certainly does not love the aggressors. 2:190

O you who acknowledge, join in peace, all of you, and do not follow the footsteps of the Devil, for, verily he is to you an open foe. 2:208

And do not make God, by your oaths, a hindrance to your doing good and being aware and making peace among mankind. God is Hearer, Knower. 2:224

A person should not be burdened beyond its means. No mother shall be harmed because of her child, nor shall a father be harmed because of his child. For the guardian is the same requirement. So if they wish to separate out of mutual agreement and council, then there is no blame on them. 2:233

There is no compulsion in religion; the right way has become distinct from error; so, whoever rejects false deities and acknowledges God has grasped the firmest handle that never breaks; and God is Hearer, Knower. 2:256

O you who acknowledge, spend from the good things that you have earned, and from what We have brought forth from the earth. And choose not for your spending the bad things which you yourselves would not accept without averting your eyes in disdain. And know that God is self-sufficient, ever to be praised. 2:267

You are not responsible for their guidance, but it is God who will guide whoever He wishes. And whatever you spend out of goodness is for your own souls. And anything you spend should be in seeking the face of God. And whatever you spend out of goodness will be returned to you, and you will not be wronged. 2:272

Those who spend their wealth on the needy by night and by day, secretly or openly, have their reward with their Sustainer; and they have nothing to fear nor will they grieve. 2:274

God bears witness (shahada) that there is no god but He (La Ilaha Illa Allah), and so do the Forces and those of knowledge, upright with equity: there is no god but He, the Almighty, the Wise. 3:18

As for those (Christians and others) who acknowledge and do good works He will grant their reward in full. 3:57

Among the people of the book are those whom if you entrust him with a large amount he gives it back to you, and there are those whom if you entrust with one gold coin he will not return it to you unless you are standing over him. That is because they said, “We have no obligation towards the Gentiles.” They say about God lies while knowing. 3:75

Except those who repent after this and make amends, then God is Forgiver, Merciful. 3:89

And hold firmly to the Rope of God, all of you, and do not be divided. 3:103

And do not be like the ones who became divided and differed after the clear proofs had come to them. And for them is a painful retribution. 3:105

The ones who spend in prosperity and hardship, and who restrain their anger, and who pardon the people; because God loves the good-doers. 3:134

You shall most certainly be tried in your possessions and your selves, and you shall hear from those who were given the Book before you and from the polytheists much hurt; but if you are patient and aware, then this indeed will be a matter of great determination. 3:186

Thus their Sustainer answers them: I do not waste the work of any worker from among you, be you male or female, you are all as each other. 3:195

And surely among the people of the Book are those who acknowledge God and what was sent down to you and what was sent down to them; they revere God and they do not purchase with God’s messages a cheap price. They will have their recompense with their Sustainer; for God is swift in reckoning. 3:199

And whoever does evil or wrongs himself but afterwards seeks God’s forgiveness, he will find God Oft Forgiving, Most Merciful. 4:10

O you who acknowledge, do not consume one another’s wealth wrongfully, except through a trade, which is mutually agreed by you. Do not destroy yourselves; certainly, God is Merciful towards you./ And whoever does that through aggression and injustice, We shall soon cast him into the fire. And that is easy for God. 4:29-30

Serve God and do not set up anything with Him, and be kind to the parents, and the relatives, and the needy, and the neighbor who is of kin, and the neighbor nearby, and close friend, and the wayfarer, and those with whom you have contractual rights. Verily, God does not like the arrogant, the boastful. 4:36

Whoever mediates (a good deed) with a good mediation, he will have a reward of it; and whoever mediates with an evil mediation, he will receive a share of it; for, indeed, God has control over everything./ And when you are greeted with a greeting, then return an even better greeting or (at least) return the same. Verily, God keeps count indeed of all things. 4:85-86

But if they retire from you, and did not fight you, and they offer you peace; then God does not make for you a way against them. 4:90

O you who acknowledge, if you go forth in the cause of God, you shall investigate carefully. And do not say to anyone who greets you with peace, “You are not an acknowledger!” You are seeking the vanity of this world; but with God are many riches. That is how you were before, but God favoured you, so investigate carefully. God is expert over what you do. 4:94

O you who acknowledge, be upright with equity, as witnesses to (the oneness of) God, even if against yourselves or parents or kin, and whether it be against rich or poor, God is nearer unto both, so do not follow your desires from being just. 4:135

Those who acknowledge, then reject, then acknowledge, then reject, then they increase in rejection; God was neither to forgive them nor to guide them to the path. 4:137

When you hear God’s messages being rejected and ridiculed in, then do not sit with them until they move on to a different topic. 4:140

Let not the hatred of another people, because they had barred you from the Restricted Temple, tempt you to aggress. Cooperate with one another in goodness and righteousness, and do not bind together in sin and animosity. 5:2

O you who acknowledge, be upright with equity, as witnesses to (the oneness of) God, and let not the hatred towards a people make you deviate from justice. Be just, for it is closer to awareness, and be aware of God. God is fully Aware of what you do. 5:8

Through this Book, God guides to Paths of Peace, those who seek His Approval. He brings them out of darkness into the light of His grace, and guides them to the straight path. 5:16

Unto each among you have we appointed laws and an open way. If God had so willed, He would have made you a single people, but He tests you in what He has given you: so strive with one another as in a race in good works. The goal of you all is to God; it is He that will show you the truth of the matters in which you differ. 5:48

If the people of the Book only would have acknowledged and been aware, We would have cancelled for them their sins and admitted them into gardens of bliss./ If they had upheld the Torah, the Gospel, and all what was sent down to them from their Sustainer, they would have been rewarded from above them and below their feet. From among them is a pious nation, but many of them commit evil. 5:65-66

O you who acknowledge, you are responsible for your own selves; none who are misguided can harm you when you are guided. To God is your return, all of you, and then He will inform you of what you have done. 5:105

And do not turn away those who call on their Sustainer morning and evening seeking His presence; you are not responsible for their account, nor are they responsible for your account; if you turn them away, then you will be of the wicked. 6:52

Thus We test them with one another, so that they may say, “Are these the ones whom God has blessed from amongst us?” Is God not aware of the thankful? 6:53

If those who acknowledge Our messages come to you, then say, “Peace be upon you, our Sustainer has decreed mercy upon Himself, that any of you who commits sin out of ignorance and then repents afterwards and reforms, then He is Forgiving, Compassionate.” 6:54

And when you see those who engage in mocking Our messages, then turn away from them until they move on to a different topic. 6:68

Leave alone those who have taken their system as a game and diversion, and this worldly life has tempted them. Remind with it that a person will suffer for what s/he has earned, s/he will not have besides God any supporter nor intercessor; and even if s/he offers every ransom, none will be accepted from it. 6:70

Such is God, your Sustainer, there is no god but He; creator of all things, so serve Him alone. And He is caretaker over all things./ Sights encompass Him not, but He encompasses all sights; and He is Unfathomable, All-aware./ Insights have certainly come to you from your Sustainer; then whoever sights, does so for his own self, and whoever is blinded, does the same. And (say): I am not over you an overseer. 6:102-104

If God had willed, they would not have set up associates. We did not make you over them a guardian, nor are you their caretaker./ Do not insult those whom they invoke other than God, lest they insult God out of ignorance. And to every community We have made their doings appearing fair; then to their Sustainer is their ultimate return and He will then inform them of what they were doing. 6:107-108

Say: With God is the conclusive argument. If He wished He would have guided you all. 6:149

Those who break the unity of their Deen and become sects, you have nothing to do with them whatsoever. Their case will go to God and He will then tell them what they had been doing. 6:159

Say: My Sustainer has forbidden only indecencies, whether open or secret, and vice, and aggression without justice, and that you associate with God that which He has never authorized, and that you say about God what you do not know. 7:33

So, do not spread corruption on Earth after it has been set in order. And call unto Him with fear and longing: God’s mercy is ever near unto the doers of good!  7:56

Hold to forgiveness, and enjoin kindness; and leave alone those who choose to remain ignorant. 7:199

And if they (the opponents) incline to peace, then you also incline to it, and place your trust in God: verily He is the Hearer, the Knower. 8:61

And if any of the idolaters seeks your protection, then protect him so that he may hear God’s words, then let him reach his sanctity. This is because they are a people who do not know. 9:6

If they reject you, then say: My works are for me, and your works are for you. You are innocent of what I do, and I am innocent of what you do. 10:41

And had your Sustainer so willed, all who on Earth would have acknowledged. Will you then force the people to become acknowledgers?/ And it is not to a self that it can attain conviction, except by God’s leave, and He casts uncleanness on those who do not reason./ Say: … 10:99-101

Say: “O people, the truth has come to you from your Lord, so whoever is guided is being guided for himself and whoever is misguided will remain so, and I am not a caretaker over you.”/ And follow what is being inspired to you and be patient until God judges. And He is the best of judges. 10:108-109

And O my people, ask forgiveness of your Sustainer and turn to Him, He will send the Heaven down upon you in torrents and add strength to your strength, so do not turn away as evildoers. 11:52

Be patient, for God does not waste the reward of the good doers. 11:115

He sends down water from the Heaven, and the channels flow, each according to its measure, and the torrent bears away to foam that mounts up to the surface. And from what they melt in the fire for making ornaments or tools arises a scum like it. Thus does God compare the real and the false. Then the scum disappears as a worthless thing; while that which is of benefit to mankind remains on the Earth. Thus does God set forth parables. 13:17

Those who are patient longing for their Sustainer’s Countenance; and they establish divine order and spend of what We have given them, secretly and openly, and they counter evil with good; theirs will be an abode excellent. 13:22

When Abraham said: O My Sustainer, make this town a sanctuary, and keep me and my ‘descendents’ away from serving idols…/ O My Sustainer, they have misguided many from amongst the people. So, whoever follows me, then he is of me, and whoever disobeys me, then You are Forgiving, Compassionate. 14:35-36

And We have created not the Heavens and the Earth and all between them except with the truth. And indeed the Hour is coming; so forgive them with kindly forgiveness. 15:85

And to God is the direction of the way, but some ways go not straight. And if He wished, He could have guided you all. 16:9

Surely God enjoins justice and kindness and generosity towards fellow-men, and He forbids indecency and injustice and transgression. 16:90

Call (all) to the path of your Sustainer with wisdom and beautiful exhortation, and reason with them in the most kindly manner – for your Sustainer knows best who deviates from His path, and He knows best who are the guided ones. 16:125

And tell My servants to speak only that which is best and kindest. Surely, Devil stirs up discord between them. Surely, Devil is to man a clear enemy./ Your Sustainer is fully aware of you, if He wishes He will have mercy on you, or if He wishes He will chastise you. We have not sent you as a guardian over them. 17:53-54

Say: Everyone works according to his own; and your Sustainer is best aware as to who has chosen the best path. 17:84

Some say they were three, the dog being the fourth among them; others say they were five, the dog being the sixth,- doubtfully guessing at the unknown; yet others say they were seven, the dog being the eighth. Say: My Sustainer knows best their number; none knows them but a few. So do not argue about them except with clear knowledge, nor inquire any of them (who argue) about them.” 18:22

And say: The truth is from your Sustainer, so whoever wills let him acknowledge, and whoever wills let him reject. 18:29

Surely, those who acknowledge and do good works, the Beneficent will endow them with love. 19:96

Go, both of you, to Pharaoh, for he has transgressed./ So say to him soft words, perhaps he will remember or be concerned. 20:43-44

This is your nation, one nation, since I am the Sustainer of you all: so worship Me alone./ But they split up their affair among themselves, yet unto Us they shall all return./ So whosoever does good work and he is an acknowledger, then his efforts will not be rejected: for We are recording it for him. 21:92-94

Surely those who acknowledge and those who were Jews and the Sabians and the Christians and the Zoroastrians and those who set up associates, certainly God will decide between them on the Day of Resurrection: for God is witness over all things. 22:17

Those who have been evicted from their homes unjustly, for no reason other than saying, “Our Lord is God!”. And were it not that God repels some people by means of others, then monasteries and churches and synagogues and temples of worship in which God’s name is abundantly remembered, would have been utterly demolished. 22:40

For every nation We have appointed ways of worship which they are to observe. So do not let the matter fall into dispute, but summon them to your Sustainer: for, behold, you are on the right path. 22:67

And certainly, this community of yours is one community and I am your Sustainer. So, remain conscious of Me. 23:52

Those who spread slander are a group among you. Deem it not a bad thing for you. Nay, It is good for you. 24:11

See you not that God is He Whom do glorify all those who are in the Heavens and the Earth, and the birds with wings outspread? Each knows its own worship and its glorification. And God is Aware of what they do. 24:41

The true servants of the Beneficent are those who walk upon the Earth humbly, and when the ignorant ones address them, they say: “Peace!” 25:63

And whosoever repents, and does right has truly turned unto God by true repent­ance./ And those who do not bear false witness, and if they pass by vain talk they pass by with dignity. 25:71-72

And do not deprive people of what is rightfully theirs; and do not act wickedly on Earth by spreading corruption. 26:183

Indeed Pharaoh exalted himself in the land and divided its people into factions/castes, oppressing/degrading a group of them slaughtering their sons and sparing/shaming their women. Verily he was of the corrupters. 28:4; cf. 2:49, 7:141, 40:25

To these We grant twice the reward for that they have been patient. And they counter evil with good, and from Our provisions to them, they give./ And if they come across vain talk, they disregard it and say: “To us are our deeds, and to you, your deeds. Peace be upon you. We do not seek to behave like the ignorant ones.” 28:54-55

And seek the future abode by means of what God has granted you, and forget not your own share in this world, and do good to others as God has done good to you. And spread not corruption on Earth, for God loves not the corruptors. 28:77

Do people think that they will be left to themselves simply because they say, “We believe”, and will not be put to test? 29:2

Do not argue with the people of the Book except in the best manner, except for those of them who are bent on oppression. And tell them: We acknowledge what is revealed to us and to you; our god and your god is One; and to Him do we submit. 29:46

As for those who sincerely strive for Us, We surely guide them onto paths that lead to Us. God is with those who do Good. 29:69

And if We had wished, We could have given every soul its guidance. 32:13 

And incline not to the rejecters and the hypocrites, and do not mind their hurtful talk, and place your trust in God; for God suffices as an advocate. 33:48

“Peace”, a word from the Merciful Sustainer. 36:58

Do you worship what you yourselves carve?/ And God has created you and all that you make/ do (including your worshipping). 37:95-96

“Has he made the gods into One god? This is indeed a strange thing!” 38:5

Say (thus speaks God, cf. 39:11): “O My servants who acknowledged, remain conscious of your Sustainer.” For those who worked righteousness in this world will be a good reward, and the Earth of God is spacious. Those who steadfastly persevere will receive their recompense fully, without reckoning./ Say: “I have been commanded to serve God, devoting the system to Him alone.” 39:10-11

We have sent down to you the Book for the people with the truth. Then, whoever is guided is guided for himself, and whoever goes astray goes astray to his own hurt. And you are not a keeper over them. 39:41

And who is better in saying than one who invites to God, and does good works, and says: “I am one of those who have submitted.”/ But not equal are the good and the bad response. You shall resort to the one which is better. Then the one who was your enemy may become your close friend./ And none can attain this except those who are patient; and none can attain this except those endowed with greatest fortune./ If the Devil misleads you in anything, then you shall seek refuge with God. He is the Hearer, the Knowledgeable. 41:33-36

But not equal are the good and the bad response. You shall resort to the one which is better. Thus, the one who used to be your enemy may become your best friend. 41:34

The Heavens are about to rent asunder from above themselves; and the Forces hymn the praise of their Sustainer and seek for­giveness for those on Earth: Behold! Verily God is the Forgiving, the Merciful./ And those who take allies besides Him, God is Guardian (Protector) over them; and you are not over them a caretaker. 42:5-6

Now had God so willed, He could surely have made them all one single community … / And on whatever you may differ the judgment thereon rests with God. Such is God, my Sustainer: in Him I put my trust, and unto Him I turn. 42:8, 10

He has decreed for you the same religion He ordained for Noah, and We have revealed to you the same Message as We enjoined upon Abraham, Moses, and Jesus: You shall uphold this religion, and do not divide in it. Difficult for those who set up associates is that (unity) to which you invite them. …/ Or do they have associates who decree for them a sharia which has not been authorized by God? 42:13, 21

I am commanded to be just among you: God is our Sustainer as well as your Sustainer; we have our deeds and you have your deeds; let there be no dispute between us and you: God will gather us together, and unto Him is the return. 42:15

Such is the good news from God to His servants who acknowledge and do good works. Say: “I do not ask you for any wage, except that you show compassion to your fellow-men.” And whoever earns a good deed, We shall increase it for him in goodness. Surely, God is Forgiving, Appreciative. 42:23

So disregard them and say, “Peace.” For they will come to know. 43:89

Say to those who acknowledged: they should forgive those who do not look forward to the days of God. He will fully recompense people for whatever they have earned./ Whoever works good does so for himself, and whoever works evil will suffer it. Then to your Sustainer you will be returned. 45:14-15

O mankind! Behold, We have created you as/ of male and female, and made you into nations and groups, that you may know each other. Surely, the most honourable of you in the sight of God is the most conscious of you. Surely, God is All-knowing, All-aware. 49:13

We are fully aware of what they say; but you are not one to compel them; therefore remind with this recital those who mind My warning. 50:45

That no bearer of a burden can bear another’s burden:/ That man can have nothing but what he strives for./ And his efforts will be seen./  Then he shall be fully requited for it. 53:38-41

And the Heaven, He has raised it high, and has set the Balance,/ That you may not transgress in respect of the Balance,/ But keep up the measure with equity and fall not short in the Balance. 55:7-9

God does not prohibit you from those who have not fought you because of your system, nor drove you out of your homes, that you deal kindly and equitably with them. For God loves the equitable./ But God forbids you befriending only those who fought you because of your system, and drove you out of your homes, and helped to drive you out. You shall not ally with them. Those who ally with them, then such are the transgressors. 60:8-9

From God, unto whom there are many ways of ascent./ To Him ascend the Forces and the Divine Inspiration in a Day the measure whereof was as fifty thousand years./ Therefore be patient with a goodly patience. 70:3-5

The Sustainer of the sunrise point and the sunset point: there is no god but Him: so, hold on Him alone as your Protector./ And endure with patience whatever they say, and depart from them with a decent departure./ And leave Me alone to deal with those who give the lie to the truth, while they enjoy the blessings of life. And bear with them for a little while. 73:9-11

Indeed this is but a reminder, so let whoever wishes take a path to his Sustainer! 73:19

Leave Me alone (to deal through My law) with the one I alone have created alone. 74:11

So remind, for you are but a reminder./ You are not over them a controller. 88:21-22

For you your way, and for me my way. 109:6

Quran, the messenger of peace and tolerance

Quran, the messenger of peace

 

The Quran, the living messenger:

● insists on the ultimate Oneness of Humanity and asks people not to divide into conflicting factions (2:36-38, 2:208, 3:103, 3:105, 4:1, 6:159, 7:189, 15:89-90, 18:110, 23:52, 28:4, 30:19-22, 30:32, 42:13, 49:13);

● declares that humans have been made into nations and groups so that they may know and understand each other – and not to convert or subjugate others (49:13);

● acknowledges equal human rights and dignity of all individuals, regardless of their status and identities, and recognizes superiority only by awareness (2:30-34, 3:195, 4:32, 17:70, 33:35, 46:19, 49:13, 95:4);

● calls on people to focus on their common goals as humans and to strive with one another as in a race in good works (2:139, 2:148, 2:208, 5:48, 10:41, 29:2);

● acknowledges the rainbow of the collective human consciousness, or mind’s universe, which is knit with countless heavenly paths (6:107-108, 6:149, 13:17, 23:17-20, 23:32, 51:7-8, 70:3-5);

● asserts that there are infinite ways that lead to the Divine and spiritual awareness (‘plural paths’, 29:69; cf. 2:111-115, 2:274, 3:199, 11:52, 16:9, 18:24, 70:3-5, 92:4-10);

● states that, while there is only one universal principle of islam (peace-seeking), there are plural paths of peace to achieve that principle (subul as-salaam, 5:16; cf. 2:62, 2:111-112, 2:177, 3:57, 3:199, 4:94, 5:69, 6:52-53, 13:17, 19:96, 70:3-5);

● upholds the notions of a pluralistic society with peaceful intercommunal coexistence and cooperation (2:208, 2:136-139, 2:143, 2:208, 3:64, 3:103, 5:2, 5:48, 15:70, 17:84, 21:71, 23:52, 26:164-165, 42:8-10, 42:15);

● condemns prejudice and bigotry and promotes acceptance of the differences (2:111-113, 2:148, 3:75, 4:94, 5:48, 5:65-66, 10:99-101, 18:29, 42:15, 74:11);

● recognizes the right of everyone to enjoy the full freedom of thought, opinion and expression, without being controlled by others, since everyone’s caretaker is God (2:272, 2:42, 3:71, 6:102-104, 6:107-108, 42:5-6);

● promotes the concepts of peaceful coexistence of all religions, or religious pluralism, and multidimensionality of the Truth (2:135-136, 2:148, 3:57, 3:64, 5:48, 5:65-66, 6:52-53, 6:149, 6:159, 13:4, 21:92-94, 22:17, 22:67, 23:17-32, 24:41, 42:8-10, 42:15, 70:3-5, 74:11);

● recognizes the sanctity of all places of worship – monasteries, churches, synagogues, mosques, temples and the likes (2:114-115, 5:48, 22:40, 22:67, 24:36, 24:41, 72:18);

● offers complete freedom of choice either to accept or reject the guidance (2:256, 2:272, 10:108-109, 18:29, 32:13, 39:41, 73:19, 74:11, 109:6);

● denounces coercion in matters of faith and supports everyone’s right to freedom of creed, religion and vision (2:256, 6:102-104, 6:149, 10:99-101, 18:29, 22:40, 39:41, 42:8-10, 50:45, 73:19, 74:11, 88:21-22, 109:6);

● asks not to insult others’ gods lest others insult God out of ignorance (6:108);

● acknowledges the need to allow people to worship their chosen idols – for the sake of intercommunal peace and harmony (7:150, 14:35-36, 20:90-94, 37:95-96, 38:5, 74:11, 109:6);

● asks to focus on our own behaviour, instead of judging other people’s behaviour, while leaving the final judgment to God alone (2:113, 2:141, 5:105, 6:149, 20:135, 22:17, 22:67, 27:78, 45:14, 49:11, 68:7, 74:11);

● recommends peaceful engagements and dialogues with differing religious groups by means of wisdom and in the kindest manner (3:159, 10:99-101, 16:125, 17:53-54, 20:43-44, 29:46);

● asks to avoid conjecture and not to argue with differing groups in matters of which one has little information (3:66,10:36, 2:111, 6:116, 18:22-26, 21:24, 45:24, 49:6, 53:28);

● calls for tolerance and peaceful cooperation even if dialogues fail or messages fall on deaf ears (3:186, 5:2, 6:70, 7:199, 10:41, 109:6);

● asks to always resort to a better response and repel evil with good, which could turn an enemy into a friend (3:103, 7:199, 13:22, 28:54-55, 41:34, 73:10-11);

● instructs to deal with mockers and bullies in a most peaceful manner – with patience, tolerance and restraint (25:63, 25:72, 4:140, 6:68, 3:186, 25:63, 25:71-72, 33:48, 109:6);

● prescribes no blasphemy law and no punishment for apostasy or rejection, while reassuring that there is always room for repentance (3:89, 3:85-90, 4:10, 4:137, 6:54, 7:180, 33:57);

● unequivocally denounces any act of hatred, aggression, corruption, homicide and mischief on Earth (2:11, 2:60, 2:190, 5:2, 5:32, 7:33, 7:56, 7: 74, 13:25, 16:90, 26:151-152,  26:183, 27:48 -49, 28:77, 42:42 , 47:22 -23);

● asks to always stand for justice, without influence of hatred or bias, even if this goes against ourselves or our parents or relatives, or against rich or poor (3:18, 4:135, 5:2, 5:8, 6:152, 16:90);

● asks to speak to each other only that which is best and kindest (17:53-54, 20:43-44, 41:33-36);

● tells to do good to all people, including those who are bad (2:224, 2:272, 4:36, 4:85-86, 9:6, 16:90, 28:77, 42:23);

● asks to help others by spending from the goodies and not to give them things that we dislike for ourselves (2:267);

● asks to make due allowance for human nature, which is inherently weak and forgetful, and not to be harsh with those who err (4:28, 7:199, 9:6, 11:115, 20:115, 73:9-10);

● tells to restrain anger and forgive others for their wrong doings, and thereby to let go of resentments and move forward (2:109, 2:263, 3:134, 4:149, 5:13, 7:199, 15:85, 24:11, 24:22, 42:37, 42:40, 42:43,  45:14,  64:14);

● asks to make things easy for people – without causing them undue hardship or demanding of them excessive efforts (2:286, 6:152, 7:42, 23:62, 42:23);

● calls on to deal kindly and equitably with everyone, unless one has to address an aggressor (4:36, 16:90, 42:23, 60:8-9);

● calls on to stand up for human rights against oppression and persecution; and thus sanctions war only for self-defense and as the last resort, while reminding that hostilities must be brought to an end as quickly as possible and the minute the enemy sues for peace (2:190-193, 2:216-217, 4:75, 8:61-65, 22:39-40, 42:41, 60:7-8; cf. 2:216, 4:89, 5:33, 8:12, 8:39, 9:5, 9:29, 9:123, 47:4);

● asks not to hold people captive unless necessitated by military considerations (8:67) and demands that prisoners of war are always released, either by way of kindness or by ransom (e.g. prisoner exchange), even while the war is ongoing (47:4);

● tells to protect anyone who seeks safety and peace, even if s/he is from the hostile camp and in times of war (9:6, 60:7-9);

● encourages to continuously strive for making peace with all and also to mediate peace processes with opponents, especially with those who come with an offer of peace (2:208, 2:224, 4:85-86, 4:90, 4:94, 8:61-62);

● asks to greet with peace everyone, including idolaters, mockers and rejecters (6:54, 13:24, 20:47, 33:44, 24:61, 28:55, 43:89, 51:25);

● advises to return any greeting of peace with ‘a better greeting or at least a similar one’ (4:86);

● asks to observe the balance throughout the universe and to become an epitome of this balance by following the golden mean (2:143, 2:219, 2:238, 17:29, 25:67, 55:7-9, 68:28);

● asks in all dealings to measure with a just balance and not to deprive others of what is rightfully theirs (2:188, 2:274-275, 3:18, 4:29-30, 6:152, 26:181 -183, 53:38-41);

● portrays God mainly as an infinitely merciful and all-forgiving god rather than a cruel, vengeful deity, which requires us to incarnate these divine attributes of mercy and compassion in our interactions with others (1:1-3, 2:274, 6:12, 15:56, 36:58, 39:53, 53:38-41, 17:20, 40:7, 42:5-6); and

● constantly emphasizes that there are infinite paths that lead to the ultimate Good and so towards salvation (2:62, 2:111-115, 2:121, 2:135-136, 2:140-141, 2:148, 2:286, 3:57, 3:64, 3:195, 3:199, 4:94, 5:16, 5:43-45, 5:46-48, 5:69, 5:77, 6:52, 6:107-108, 6:165, 10:41, 11:115, 16:9, 18:24, 19:96, 21:92-94, 22:17, 22:40, 22:67-69, 24:41, 29:46, 29:69, 39:10-11 , 42:15-16, 42:23, 45:15, 49:13, 53:39, 70:3-5, 92:4).

***********************************

Here are some of the verses cited above:

The Quran calls for peace and tolerance: verse examples