How hadiths insult and demonise the Prophet

How hadiths insult and demonise the Prophet

In our study on The Muhammad of the Quran, along with True Muhammad versus False Muhammad, we observed that Muhammad is better represented by the Quran – an existentialist document and an authenticated, contemporary diary that instantaneously records Muhammad’s ongoing experience during his prophetic mission to the Arabs and the world – rather than by all those legends, rumours and anecdotes of contradictory hadiths and sira, written centuries after his time on the basis of long chains of unreliable oral transmissions, distorted by amnesia, confabulations and conjectures, often with dubious motives and intentions.

Now, looking into all those recorded rumours and trashes contained in hadith books that both idolize and demonise the Prophet Muhammad, we can see why the Quran presaged the Hadith-whisperers as Prophet’s enemy (6:112; cf. 25:30-31; 7:194-204). And why the most aggressive weapon in the hands of the Islamophobes to attack Islam is Hadith.

The Quran testifies to the high moral character of Muhammad (e.g., 68:4). Contrast this with the examples below that demonstrate how hadiths, including the so-called sahih hadiths, constantly insult and demonise him:

  1. Muhammad is a torturer
  2. Muhammad is a plunderer
  3. Muhammad is a warmonger
  4. Muhammad is a mass murderer
  5. Muhammad is an aggressor
  6. Muhammad orders to burn people and houses with fire
  7. Muhammad orders to kill apostates
  8. Muhammad is a terrorist
  9. Muhammad orders to kill someone who posed no threat
  10. Muhammad allows killing through deception and lying
  11. Muhammad promotes rape of female captives of war
  12. Muhammad is a hate-preacher
  13. Muhammad is an anti-Semite
  14. Muhammad is suicidal
  15. Muhammad is bewitched
  16. Muhammad suffers from delusion and hallucination
  17. Muhammad is a megalomaniac
  18. Muhammad is a sex maniac
  19. Muhammad fondles his wives while in menses
  20. Muhammad promotes polygyny
  21. Muhammad is a wife beater
  22. Muhammad allows wife beating
  23. Muhammad is a male chauvinist
  24. Muhammad portrays women as inferior
  25. Muhammad makes women slaves to their husbands
  26. Muhammad insults and derogates women
  27. Muhammad is a rapist
  28. Muhammad is a homophobe
  29. Muhammad is a cross-dresser
  30. Muhammad is a deceiver
  31. Muhammad is a hypocrite
  32. Muhammad is a liar and oath-breaker
  33. Muhammad forgets his promise
  34. Muhammad is dispraised
  35. Muhammad is unjust and holds double standard
  36. Muhammad gives himself extra favours
  37. Muhammad is a nepotist
  38. Muhammad and his companions prosper through war booties
  39. Muhammad is a music hater
  40. Muhammad lacks sense of humour
  41. Muhammad laughs at genitals of a killed man
  42. Muhammad laughs while cursing Jews
  43. Muhammad laughs at someone’s dream of having head cut off
  44. Muhammad is a hater of art
  45. Muhammad breaks all statues, icons and images
  46. Muhammad asks to destroy heads of statues even if not idols
  47. Muhammad is a hater of dogs
  48. Muhammad is a paedophile
  49. Muhammad is a child abuser
  50. Muhammad is a child killer
  51. Muhammad promotes slavery and okays flogging of slaves
  52. Muhammad is a slave trader
  53. Muhammad calls debtors liars and promise-breakers
  54. Muhammad condones violence during prayer
  55. Muhammad makes contradictory comments
  56. Muhammad is a briber
  57. Muhammad is Mary’s Husband
  58. Muhammad is a racist
  59. Muhammad is a white man
  60. Muhammad is ungrateful
  61. Muhammad spits into drinks
  62. Muhammad spits on child’s face and mouth
  63. Muhammad spits into wounds
  64. Muhammad spits into eyes
  65. Muhammad spits on dead body
  66. Muhammad is dwarf and fat
  67. Muhammad is unclean and has lice in his head
  68. Muhammad makes unscientific statements
  69. Muhammad fabricates the Quran
  70. Muhammad discriminates between messengers


1. Muhammad is a torturer

Some people of ‘Ukl or ‘Uraina tribe came to Medina and its climate did not suit them. So the Prophet ordered them to go to the herd of (Milch) camels and to drink their milk and urine (as a medicine). So they went as directed and after they became healthy, they killed the shepherd of the Prophet and drove away all the camels. The news reached the Prophet early in the morning and he sent (men) in their pursuit and they were captured and brought at noon. He then ordered to cut their hands and feet (and it was done), and their eyes were branded with heated pieces of iron, They were put in ‘Al-Harra’ and when they asked for water, no water was given to them.” Narrated by Abu Qilaba, attributed to Anas. Bukhari 1:4:234; also Bukhari 7:71:590

The Messenger said, “Get him away from me and cut off his tongue.” Ishaq:595

2. Muhammad is a plunderer

The Prophet (sa) said, “My livelihood is under the shade of my spear, and he who disobeys my orders will be humiliated by paying Jizya.” Footnote: “Under the shade of my spear” means “from war booty”. Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar. Bukhari 4:88

3. Muhammad is a warmonger

Expeditions Led by Allah’s Messenger: In this year, according to all Sira writers, the Messenger personally led the Ghazwa of Alwa. (A Ghazwa is an Islamic Invasion in Allah’s cause consisting of an army unit led by the Prophet himself.) He left Sa’d in command of Medina. On this raid his banner was carried by Hamzah. He stayed out for fifteen days and then returned to Medina. The Messenger went on a Ghazwa at the head of two hundred of his companions in October, 623 and reached Buwat. His intention was to intercept a Quraysh caravan with a hundred men and twenty-five hundred camels. Tabari, Vol.7, p.15

4. Muhammad is a mass murderer

The Jews were made to come down, and Allah’s Messenger imprisoned them. Then the Prophet went out into the marketplace of Medina, and he had trenches dug in it. He sent for the Jewish men and had them beheaded in those trenches. They were brought out to him in batches. They numbered 800 to 900 boys and men. Ishaq 464; also Bukhari 5:59:362 and Muslim 19:4364

5. Muhammad is an aggressor

God’s Messenger said: “I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform that, then they save their lives and property from me except for Islamic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allah.” Reported by Ibn Umar. Bukhari 1:2:24

6. Muhammad orders to burn people and houses with fire

Allah’s Messenger sent us in a mission (i.e. an army-unit) and said, “If you find so-and-so and so-and-so, burn both of them with fire.” When we intended to depart, Allah’s Messenger said, “I have ordered you to burn so-and-so and so-and-so, and it is none but Allah Who punishes with fire, so, if you find them, kill them.” Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:52:259

The Prophet said, “Certainly I decided to order the Mu’adh-dhin (call-maker) to pronounce Iqama and order a man to lead the prayer and then take a fire flame to burn all those who had not left their houses so far for the prayer along with their houses.” Narrated Abu Huraira. Bukhari 1:11:626

7. Muhammad orders to kill apostates

The Prophet said, “If somebody (a Muslim) discards his religion, kill him.” Reported by Ikrima, attributed to Ali. Bukhari 4:52:260

Allah’s Messenger (sa) said, “The blood of a Muslim who confesses that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that I am His Apostle, cannot be shed except in three cases: In Qisas for murder, a married person who commits illegal sexual intercourse and the one who reverts from Islam (apostate) and leaves the Muslims.” Narrated by `Abdullah. Bukhari 9:83:17

8. Muhammad is a terrorist

Allah’s Messenger said, “I have been sent with the shortest expressions bearing the widest meanings, and I have been made victorious with terror (cast in the hearts of the enemy), and while I was sleeping, the keys of the treasures of the world were brought to me and put in my hand.” Abu Huraira added: Allah’s Messenger has left the world and now you, people, are bringing out those treasures (i.e. the Prophet did not benefit by them). Narrated Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:52:220

9. Muhammad orders to kill someone who posed no threat

An infidel spy came to the Prophet while he was on a journey. The spy sat with the companions of the Prophet and started talking and then went away. The Prophet said (to his companions), “Chase and kill him.” So, I killed him. The Prophet then gave him the belongings of the killed spy (in addition to his share of the war booty). Narrated Salama bin Al-Akwa. Bukhari 4:52:286

10. Muhammad allows killing through deception and lying

The Prophet said, “Who is ready to kill Ka’b bin Ashraf (i.e. a Jew).” Muhammad bin Maslama replied, “Do you like me to kill him?” The Prophet replied in the affirmative. Muhammad bin Maslama said, “Then allow me to say what I like.” The Prophet replied, “I do (i.e. allow you).” Narrated Jabir. Bukhari 4:52:271

11. Muhammad promotes rape of female captives of war

We got female captives in the war booty and we used to do coitus interruptus with them. So we asked Allah’s Messenger about it and he said, “Do you really do that?” repeating the question thrice, “There is no soul that is destined to exist but will come into existence, till the Day of Resurrection.” Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri. Bukhari 7:62:137

Narrated Buraida: The prophet sent Ali to Khalid to bring the Khumus ((one fifth) of the booty) and I hated Ali, and Ali had taken a bath (after a sexual act with a slave girl from the Khumus). I said to Khalid, “Don’t you see this (i.e. Ali)?” When we reached the prophet I mentioned that to him. He said, “O Buraida! Do you hate Ali?” I said, “Yes” He said, “Do you hate him, for he deserves more than that from the Khumus.” Bukhari 5:59:637

12. Muhammad is a hate-preacher

The Prophet said: The best of the actions is to love for the sake of Allah and to hate for the sake of Allah. Abu Dawud 40:4582

The Prophet said: If anyone loves for Allah’s sake, hates for Allah’s sake, gives for Allah’s sake and withholds for Allah’s sake, he will have perfect faith. Narrated by Abu Umamah. Abu Dawud 40:4664

Allah’s Messenger said: Do not salute them (non-Muslims) first, and when you meet them on the road, force them to go to the narrowest part of it. Reported by Abu Hurayrah. Abu Dawud 41:5186; also Muslim 26:5389 and 26:5390

13. Muhammad is an anti-Semite

The Messenger (sa) said: The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will fight against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim, or the servant of Allah, there is a Jew behind me; come and kill him. Narrated Abu Huraira. Muslim 41:6985, Bukhari 4:56:791

The Prophet said, “A group of Israelites were lost. Nobody knows what they did. But I do not see them except that they were cursed and changed into rats, for if you put the milk of a she-camel in front of a rat, it will not drink it, but if the milk of a sheep is put in front of it, it will drink it.” Narrated Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:54:524

The Prophet burned the garden of date palms of (the Jewish tribe) Bani an-Nadir. Reported by Ibn Umar. Bukhari 4:52:263

14. Muhammad is suicidal

After a few days Waraqa died and the Divine Inspiration was also paused for a while and the Prophet became so sad as we have heard that he intended several times to throw himself from the tops of high mountains and every time he went up the top of a mountain in order to throw himself down, Gabriel would appear before him and say, “O Muhammad! You are indeed Allah’s Messenger in truth” whereupon his heart would become quiet and he would calm down and would return home. And whenever the period of the coming of the inspiration used to become long, he would do as before, but when he used to reach the top of a mountain, Gabriel would appear before him and say to him what he had said before. Bukhari 9:87:111

15. Muhammad is bewitched

Once the Prophet was bewitched so that he began to imagine that he had done a thing which in fact he had not done. Narrated Aisha. Bukhari 4:53:400

A Jew from Banu Zuraiq who was called Labid b. al-A’sam cast spell upon Allah’s Messenger (sa) with the result that he felt that he had been doing something whereas in fact he had not been doing that. (This state of affairs lasted) until one day or during one night Allah’s Messenger (sa) made supplication (to dispel its effects). Reported by A’isha. Muslim 26:5428

16. Muhammad suffers from delusion and hallucination

Jabir b. Samura reported Allah’s Messenger (sa) as saying: I recognise the stone in Mecca which used to pay me salutations before my advent as a Prophet and I recognise that even now. Muslim 30:5654

Narrated ‘Aisha: Allah’s Messenger said, “O Aisha! This is Gabriel sending his greetings to you.” I said, “Peace, and Allah’s Mercy be on him.” ‘Aisha added: The Prophet used to see things which we used not to see. Bukhari 8:73:220

17. Muhammad is a megalomaniac

The Prophet said: None of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father, his children and all mankind. Narrated Anas. Bukhari 1:2:14; also Bukhari 1:2:13

Narrated Abu Said Al-Mualla: While I was praying, the Prophet passed by and called me, but I did not go to him till I had finished my prayer. When I went to him, he said, “What prevented you from coming?” I said, “I was praying.” He said, “Didn’t Allah say: O you who believes Give your response to Allah and to His Messenger (8.24)?” Bukhari 6:60:226; also Bukhari 6:60:1 and Bukhari 6:60:170

The Prophet said: I have been given five things which were not given to any one else before me. 1. Allah made me victorious by awe by His terrorizing my enemies. 2. The earth has been made for me. 3. Booty has been made lawful for me yet it was not lawful for anyone else before me. 4. I have been given the right of intercession. 5. Every Prophet used to be sent to his nation only but I have been sent to all mankind. Bukhari 1.331

18. Muhammad is a sex maniac

The Prophet used to pass by (have sexual relation with) all his wives in one night, and at that time he had nine wives. Narrated Anas bin Malik. Bukhari 7:62:142

Anas bin Malik said: “The Prophet used to visit all his wives in a round, during the day and night and they were eleven in number.” I asked Anas, “Had the Prophet the strength for it?” Anas replied, “We used to say that the Prophet was given the strength of thirty (men).” Narrated Qatada. Bukhari 1:5:268

Allah’s Messenger (sa) saw a woman, and so he came to his wife, Zainab, as she was tanning a leather and had sexual intercourse with her. He then went to his Companions and told them: The woman advances and retires in the shape of a devil, so when one of you sees a woman, he should come to his wife, for that will repel what he feels in his heart. Narrated Jabir. Muslim 8:3240

Then we reached Khaibar; and when Allah enabled him to conquer the Fort (of Khaibar), the beauty of Safiya bint Huyai bin Akhtab was described to him. Her husband had been killed while she was a bride. So Allah’s Messenger selected her for himself and … took her for his wife. Narrated Anas bin Malik. Bukhari 4:52:143

19. Muhammad fondles his wives while in menses

‘Aisha said, “Whenever Allah’s Apostle wanted to fondle anyone of us during her periods (menses), he used to order her to put on an Izar and start fondling her.” ‘Aisha added, “None of you could control his sexual desires as the Prophet could.” Reported by Abdur-Rahman bin Al-Aswad on the authority of his father. Bukhari 1:6:299

20. Muhammad promotes polygyny

The Prophet said, “Solomon (the son of) David said, ‘Tonight I will sleep with seventy ladies each of whom will conceive a child who will be a knight fighting for “Allah’s Cause.’ His companion said, ‘If Allah will.’ But Solomon did not say so; therefore none of those women got pregnant except one who gave birth to a half child.” The Prophet further said, “If the Prophet Solomon had said it (i.e. ‘If Allah will’) he would have begotten children who would have fought in Allah’s Cause.” Shuaib and Ibn Abi Az-Zinad said, “Ninety (women) is more correct (than seventy).” Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:55:635

Narrated Said bin Jubair: Ibn ‘Abbas asked me, “Are you married?” I replied, “No.” He said, “Marry, for the best person (i.e., Muhammad) of this nation of all Muslims, had the largest number of wives.” Bukhari 7:62:7

21. Muhammad is a wife beater

Narrated ‘A’isha: The Messenger of Allah (sa) … struck me on the chest which caused me pain (when she left the house one evening without his permission). Muslim 4:2127

22. Muhammad allows wife beating

The Prophet (sa) said: A man will not be asked as to why he beat his wife. Narrated Umar ibn al-Khattab. Abu Dawud 11:2142 and 11:2141; also Ibn Majah 3:9:1986

A woman came to the messenger and begged him to stop her husband from beating her. Her skin was bruised so badly that it was greener than the green veil she was wearing. The messenger did not admonish her husband, but instead told her to return to him and submit to him as long as he is not impotent. On seeing her bruises, Aisha said, ‘I have not seen any woman suffering as much as the believing women’. (summarised) Bukhari 7:72:715; also Muslim 4:2127

When Umar came to the messenger of Allah (sa) and said: Women have become emboldened towards their husbands, he gave permission to beat them. Reported by Iyas bin ‘Abd Allah bin Abi Dhubab. Abu Dawud 2141; also Ibn Majah 9:1985

23. Muhammad is a male chauvinist

Allah’s Messenger said, “Evil omen is in the women, the house and the horse.” Narrated Abdullah bin ‘Umar. Bukhari 7:62:30; also Bukhari 7:62:31 and 7:62:32

“After me I have not left any affliction more harmful to men than women.” Narrated Usama bin Zaid, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:33

“I stood at the gate of Paradise and saw that the majority of the people who entered it were the poor … Then I stood at the gate of the Fire and saw that the majority of those who entered it were women.” Narrated by Usama, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:124

The tradition (of the Prophet) is that if someone marries a virgin and he has already a matron wife (with him), then he should stay with the virgin for seven days; and if someone marries a matron (and he has already a virgin wife with him) then he should stay with her for three days. Narrated by Anas. Bukhari 7:62:140

When the Prophet heard the news that the people of the Persia had made the daughter of Khosrau their Queen (ruler), he said, “Never will succeed such a nation as makes a woman their ruler.” Narrated by Abu Bakra. Bukhari 92:50

24. Muhammad portrays women as inferior

The Prophet said (to some women), “Is not the evidence of two women equal to the witness of one man?” They replied in the affirmative. He said, “This is the deficiency in her intelligence. Isn’t it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during her menses?” The women replied in the affirmative. He said, “This is the deficiency in her religion.” Narrated by Abu Said Al-Khudri. Bukhari 1:6:301

The Prophet said (to some women), “Isn’t the witness of a woman equal to half of that of a man?” The women said, “Yes.” He said, “This is because of the deficiency of a woman’s mind.” Narrated by Abu Said Al-Khudri. Bukhari 3:48:826

25. Muhammad makes women slaves to their husbands

“A woman should not fast except with her husband’s permission if he is at home (staying with her).” Narrated by Abu Huraira, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:120

“If a man invites his wife to sleep with him and she refuses to come to him, then the angels send their curses on her till morning.” Narrated by Abu Huraira, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:121

“If a woman spends the night deserting her husband’s bed (does not sleep with him), then the angels send their curses on her till she comes back (to her husband).” Narrated by Abu Huraira, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:122

“It is not lawful for anyone to prostrate to anyone. But if I would have ordered any person to prostrate to another, I would have commanded wives to prostrate to their husbands because of the enormity of the rights of husbands over their wives.” Ibn Majah 1:595

“No human should prostrate to another, and if it were permissible for a human to prostrate to another I would have ordered a wife to prostrate to her husband because of the enormity of his rights over her. By God, if there is an ulcer excreting puss from his feet to the top of his head, and she licked it for him she would not fulfill her rights.” Reported by Anas b. Malik, attributed to the Prophet. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad 3:200

“If a woman dies while her husband was pleased with her, she will enter Paradise.” Narrated by Umm Salamah, attributed to the Prophet. Tirmidhi 286

26. Muhammad insults and derogates women

“Prayer is invalidated by (the passage of) a woman, a donkey and a dog.” Narrated by Abu Hurayrah, attributed to the Prophet. Muslim 511; also Bukhari 1:9:490

“Finding a good woman among women is similar to finding a white crow among a hundred crows.” Attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari, Ahmad b. Hanbal’s Musnad, Nisa’I, cited by al-Ghazali

“If the body of the husband is covered with pus and his wife licks it with her tongue, she still will not be able to pay her debt to him.” Attributed to the Prophet. Ahmad b. Hanbal’s Musnad, 12153; al-Jaami’, 7725

“The woman is like a rib; if you try to straighten her, she will break. So if you want to get benefit from her, do so while she still has some crookedness.” Narrated by Abu Huraira, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:113

“I advise you to take care of the women, for they are created from a rib and the most crooked portion of the rib is its upper part; if you try to straighten it, it will break, and if you leave it, it will remain crooked, so I urge you to take care of the women.” Narrated by Abu Huraira, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:114

“The stipulations most entitled to be abided by are those with which you are given the right to enjoy the (women’s) private parts (i.e. the stipulations of the marriage contract).” Narrated by ‘Uqba, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:81

27. Muhammad is a rapist

When Allah’s Messenger saw her (Safiya), he said (to Dihya): Take any other woman from among the prisoners. … He then granted her emancipation and married her (Muhammad takes Safiya after battle of Khaibar for himself from Dihya who had already chosen her). Muslim 008:3325. A long narration of this alleged event is also found in Bukhari 1:8:367

28. Muhammad is a homophobe

The Prophet (sa) said: There is nothing I fear for my ummah more than the deed of the people of Loot. Narrated by Jaabir. Tirmidhi 1457

29. Muhammad is a cross-dresser

The Prophet said (to Um Salamah): O Um Salama! Do not hurt me with Aisha; for by Allah, the inspiration did not descent on me while I was in the coverings (lihaf) of any of you (women) except Aisha. Narrated by Abdullah ibn Abdel Wahab. Bukhari 3941

30. Muhammad is a deceiver

I am the best of plotters. I deceived them with My guile so that I delivered you from them. Ishaq:323

31. Muhammad is a hypocrite

The Messenger of Allah forbade facing the Qiblah when urinating. But I saw him, one year before he died, facing the Qiblah (while urinating). Narrated by Jabir. Ibn Majah 1:325:1

The Prophet got married while he was in the state of Ihram. Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas. Bukhari 7:62:49 (in a state of ihram, the focus should be God, not marriage)

32. Muhammad is a liar and oath-breaker

We stayed for a short while, and then I said to my companions, “Allah’s Messenger has forgotten his oath. By Allah, if we do not remind Allah’s Messenger of his oath, we will never be successful.” So we returned to the Prophet and said, “O Allah’s Messenger! We asked you for mounts, but you took an oath that you would not give us any mounts; we think that you have forgotten your oath.’ He said, ‘It is Allah Who has given you mounts. By Allah, and Allah willing, if I take an oath and later find something else better than that then I do what is better and expiate my oath.’ Narrated by Zahdam. Bukhari 7:67:427

33. Muhammad forgets his promise

They came to the messenger and called upon him to answer these questions. He said to them, ‘I will give you your answer tomorrow,’ but he did not say, ‘if God will.’ So they went away; and the messenger, so they say, waited for fifteen days without a revelation from God on the matter, nor did Gabriel come to him, so that the people of Mecca began to spread evil reports, saying, ‘Muhammad promised us an answer on the morrow, and today is the fifteenth day we have remained without an answer.’ Sirat Rasul Allah, p. 133

34. Muhammad is dispraised

Allah’s Messenger said: Doesn’t it astonish you how Allah protects me from the Quraish’s abusing and cursing? They abuse Mudhammam and curse Mudhammam while I am Muhammad (and not Mudhammam). Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:56:733

35. Muhammad is unjust and holds double standard

If one murders a Muslim, he should be killed for retribution, but if he murders a disbeliever, he is fine and no retribution is required:

The Messenger of Allah said: It is not permissible to kill a Muslim except in one of three cases: A adulterer who has been married, who is to be stoned; a man who kills a Muslim deliberately; and a man who leaves Islam and wages war against Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, and His Messenger, who is to be killed, crucified or banished from the land. Narrated by ‘Aishah. Nasa’i 5:45:4747

The Prophet (sa) said: A believer should not be killed in retaliation for the murder of a disbeliever, and a person who has a treaty should not be killed during the time of the treaty. Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas. Ibn Majah 3:21:2660

36. Muhammad gives himself extra favours

Muhammad is teased by his wife when he allegedly gives himself extra privileges and immunities, through convenient revelations:

Narrated Aisha: I used to look down upon those ladies who had given themselves to Allah’s Messenger and I used to say, “Can a lady give herself (to a man)?” But when Allah revealed: “You (O Muhammad) can postpone (the turn of) whom you will of them (your wives), and you may receive any of them whom you will; and there is no blame on you if you invite one whose turn you have set aside (temporarily).’ (33.51) I said (to the Prophet), “I feel that your Lord hastens in fulfilling your wishes and desires.” Bukhari 6:60:311

37. Muhammad is a nepotist

I heard Allah’s Messenger who was on the pulpit, saying, “Banu Hisham bin Al-Mughira have requested me to allow them to marry their daughter to Ali bin Abu Talib, but I don’t give permission, and will not give permission unless ‘Ali bin Abi Talib divorces my daughter in order to marry their daughter, because Fatima is a part of my body, and I hate what she hates to see, and what hurts her, hurts me.” Narrated by Al-Miswar bin Makhrama. Bukhari 7:62:157

38. Muhammad and his companions prosper through war booties

Whenever a dead man in debt was brought to Allah’s Messenger he would ask, “Has he left anything to repay his debt?” If he was informed that he had left something to repay his debts, he would offer his funeral prayer, otherwise he would tell the Muslims to offer their friend’s funeral prayer. When Allah made the Prophet wealthy through conquests, he said, “I am more rightful than other believers to be the guardian of the believers, so if a Muslim dies while in debt, I am responsible for the repayment of his debt, and whoever leaves wealth (after his death) it will belong to his heirs.” Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 3:37:495

One of the arguments put forward by Umar was that he said that the Messenger of Allah (sa) received three things exclusively to himself: Banu an-Nadir, Khaybar and Fadak. The Banu an-Nadir property was kept wholly for his emergent needs, Fadak for travellers, and Khaybar was divided by the Messenger of Allah (sa) into three sections: two for Muslims, and one as a contribution for his family. If anything remained after making the contribution of his family, he divided it among the poor Emigrants. Narrated by Umar ibn al-Khattab, attributed to Malik ibn Aws al-Hadthan. Abu Dawud 19:2961

Whenever Allah’s Messenger (sa) ordered us to give in charity, we used to go to the market and work as porters and get a Mudd (a special measure of grain) and then give it in charity. (Those were the days of poverty) and today some of us have one hundred thousand. Narrated by Abu Masud Al-Ansar. Bukhari 2:24:497

39. Muhammad is a music hater

The Messenger of Allah said: Among my ummah there will certainly be people who permit zinaa, silk, alcohol and musical instruments… Bukhari 75:5590

Allah’s Messenger (sa) said: The bell is the flute of Satan. Reported by Abu Huraira. Muslim 024:5279; Abu Dawud

The Messenger of Allah said: When my Ummah begin doing fifteen things, they will be inflicted with tribulations, and (from those 15 things He said): When female singers and musical instruments become common. Reported by Ali ibn Talib. Tirmidhi

The Messenger of Allah said: Song makes hypocrisy grow in the heart as water does herbage. Reported by Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud. Bayhaqi

The Messenger of Allah said: On the day of Resurrection, Allah will pour molten lead into the ears of whoever sits listening to a songstress. Reported by Anas. Ibn Asakir & Ibn al-Misri

Ibn ‘Umar heard a woodwind instrument, and he put his fingers in his ears and kept away from that path. He said to me, O Naafi’, can you hear anything? I said, No. So he took his fingers away from his ears and said: I was with the Prophet (sa) and he heard something like this, and he did the same thing. Narrated by Naafi’. Abu Dawud

40. Muhammad lacks sense of humour

The Prophet (sa) said: If you knew that which I know, you would laugh little and weep much. Narrated by Anas. Bukhari 8:76:493

41. Muhammad laughs at genitals of a killed man

When a polytheist set fire to (i. e. attacked fiercely) the Muslims, Allah’s Messenger (sa) said to him (Sa’d): shoot an arrow. (Sa’d said) … I drew an arrow and I shot a featherless arrow at him aiming his side that he fell down and his private parts were exposed. Allah’s Messenger (sa) laughed that I saw his front teeth. Reported by ‘Amir b. Sa’d on the authority of his father. Muslim 31:5932

42. Muhammad laughs while cursing Jews

Ibn ‘Abbas reported: I saw the Messenger of Allah (sa) sitting neat the Black stone (or at a corner of the Ka’bah). He said: He (the Prophet) raised his eyes towards the heaven, and laughed, and he said: May Allah curse the Jews! He said this three times. Abu Dawud 23:3481

43. Muhammad laughs at someone’s dream of having head cut off

Jabir reported that a person came to Allah’s Messenger (sa) and said: Allah’s Messenger, I have seen in the state of sleep as if my head had been cut off. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (sa) laughed and said: When the satan plays with any one of you in the state of sleep, do not mention it to the people. Muslim 29:5642

44. Muhammad is a hater of art

I heard the Messenger of Allaah (sa) say: The people who will be the most severely punished before Allah on the Day of Resurrection will be the image makers. Narrated by ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood. Bukhari 5606; Muslim 2109

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: Those who make these images will be punished on the Day of Resurrection. It will be said to them, Give life to that which you have created! Narrated by ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar. Bukhari 5607; Muslim 2108

The Messenger of Allah (sa) said: Allah, Most High said: And who is more unjust than those who try to create the likeness of My creation? Let them create a seed or a small ant! Narrated by Abu Hurairah. Bukhari 5609; Muslim 2111

45. Muhammad breaks all statues, icons and images

The Messenger of Allah never left in his house anything containing the figure of a cross without destroying it. Narrated by ‘Aisha. Abu Dawud 34:132

Ali said to Abu Al-Hayyaj Al-Asadi: I am dispatching you with what the Prophet dispatched me: That you not leave an elevated grave without levelling it nor an image without erasing it. Narrated by Abu Wa’il. Jami at-Tirmidhi 10:85

The Prophet entered Mecca and (at that time) there were three hundred-and-sixty idols around the Ka’ba. He started stabbing the idols with a stick he had in his hand and reciting: “Truth (Islam) has come and Falsehood (disbelief) has vanished.” Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin Masud. Bukhari 3:43:658

46. Muhammad asks to destroy heads of statues even if not idols

The Messenger of Allah said: Gabriel came to me and said: I came to you last night and was prevented from entering simply because there were images at the door, for there was a decorated curtain with images on it in the house, and there was a dog in the house. So order the head of the image which is in the house to be cut off so that it resembles the form of a tree; order the curtain to be cut up and made into two cushions spread out on which people may tread; and order the dog to be turned out. The Messenger of Allah then did so. Narrated by Abu Hurayrah. Abu Dawud 34:139

47. Muhammad is a hater of dogs

The Prophet said: Angels do not enter a house which has either a dog or a picture in it. Narrated by Abu Talha. Bukhari 4:54:539

Allah’s Messenger ordered that the dogs should be killed. Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar. Bukhari 4:54:540

Allah’s Messenger said: If somebody keeps a dog, he loses one Qirat (of the reward) of his good deeds everyday, except if he keeps it for the purpose of agriculture or for the protection of livestock. Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:54:541

48. Muhammad is a paedophile

A’isha reported: Allah’s Messenger married me when I was six years old, and I was admitted to his house when I was nine years old. Muslim 8:3310

49. Muhammad is a child abuser

The Prophet (sa) said: Command a boy to pray when he reaches the age of seven years. When he becomes ten years old, then beat him for prayer. Narrated by As-Saburah. Abu Dawud 2:494 and 2:495

50. Muhammad is a child killer

Narrated Atiyyah al-Qurazi: I was among the captives of Banu Qurayzah. They (the Companions) examined us, and those who had begun to grow hair (pubes) were killed, and those who had not were not killed. I was among those who had not grown hair. Muslim 38:4390

Narrated As-Sab bin Jaththama: The Prophet passed by me at a place called Al-Abwa or Waddan, and was asked whether it was permissible to attack the pagan warriors at night with the probability of exposing their women and children to danger. The Prophet replied, “They (i.e. women and children) are from them (i.e. pagans).” Bukhari 4:52:256

51. Muhammad promotes slavery and okays flogging of slaves

The Prophet said: If a slave serves his master sincerely and worships his Lord (Allah) perfectly, he will get a double reward. Reported by Abdullah. Bukhari 3:46:726; also Bukhari 3:46:722, Bukhari 3:46:727

The Prophet said: None of you should flog his wife as he flogs a slave and then have sexual intercourse with her in the last part of the day. Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin Sam’a. Bukhari, 7:62:132; also Bukhari, 8:73:68

52. Muhammad is a slave trader

A man pledged that his slave would be manumitted after his death. The Prophet asked, “Who will buy the slave from me?” No’aim bin ‘Abdullah bought the slave and the Prophet took its price and gave it to the owner. Narrated by Jabir bin ‘Abdullah. Bukhari 3:41:588

53. Muhammad calls debtors liars and promise-breakers

The Prophet said, “A person in debt tells lies whenever he speaks, and breaks promises whenever he makes (them).” Reported by Aisha. Bukhari 1:12:795

54. Muhammad condones violence during prayer

The Prophet said: If while you are praying, somebody intends to pass in front of you, prevent him; and should he insist, prevent him again; and if he insists again, fight with him (i.e. prevent him violently e.g. pushing him violently), because such a person is (like) a devil. Narrated by Abu Said Al-Khudri. Bukhari 4:54:495

55. Muhammad makes contradictory comments

Two men came from the east and delivered speeches, and the Prophet (sa) said: Some eloquent speech has the influence of magic. Bukhari 7:62:76

The Prophet (sa) said: I have been given the keys of eloquent speech and given victory with terror. Bukhari 9:87:127

But elsewhere he allegedly condemns people who are gifted with this magic of eloquent speech:

The Messenger of Allah (sa) said: Allah the Exalted hates the eloquent one among men who moves his tongue round, as cattle do. Abu Dawood 5005

56. Muhammad is a briber

So the Quraish and the Ansar became angry and said, “He (i.e. the Prophet) gives the chief of Najd and does not give us.” The Prophet said, “I give them so as to attract their hearts (to Islam). Bukhari 4:55:558

57. Muhammad is Mary’s Husband

The Messenger said: In heaven, Mary mother of Jesus, will be one of my wives. al-Siyuti 6/395

The Messenger said: God married me in paradise to Mary the daughter of ‘Imran and to the wife of Pharaoh and the sister of Moses. Tabarani

58. Muhammad is a racist

Allah’s Messenger said, “You should listen to and obey, your ruler even if he was an Ethiopian slave whose head looks like a raisin.” Narrated by Anas bin Malik. Bukhari 9:89:256; also Bukhari 1:11:662 and 1:11:664

59. Muhammad is a white man

While we were sitting with the Prophet in the mosque, a man came riding on a camel. He made his camel kneel down in the mosque, tied its foreleg and then said: “Who amongst you is Muhammad?” At that time the Prophet was sitting amongst us leaning on his arm. We replied, “This white man reclining on his arm.” The man then addressed him, “O Son of ‘Abdul Muttalib.”… Narrated by Anas bin Malik. Bukhari 1:3:63

60. Muhammad is ungrateful

People used to come from their abodes and from Al-‘Awali (i.e. outskirts of Medina up to a distance of four miles or more from Medina). They used to pass through dust and used to be drenched with sweat and covered with dust; so sweat used to trickle from them. One of them came to Allah’s Messenger who was in my house. The Prophet said to him, “I wish that you keep yourself clean on this day of yours (i.e. take a bath).” Narrated by Aisha. Bukhari 2:13:25

61. Muhammad spits into drinks

Then Allah’s Messenger (sa) called for a cup of water and washed his hands in that and face too and put the saliva in it and then said: Drink out of it and pour it over your faces and over your chest and gladden yourselves. Muslim 44:236

62. Muhammad spits on child’s face and mouth

Narrated Mahmud bin Rabi`a: When I was a boy of five, I remember, the Prophet (sa) took water from a bucket with his mouth and threw it on my face. Bukhari 1:3:77

The first child born in the Islamic Land (i.e. Medina) amongst the Emigrants was `Abdullah bin Az-Zubair. They brought him to the Prophet. The Prophet (sa) took a date, and after chewing it, put its juice in his mouth. So the first thing that went into the child’s stomach, was the saliva of the Prophet. Narrated by Aisha. Bukhari 5:58:249; also Muslim 2148

63. Muhammad spits into wounds

Narrated Yazid bin Abi Ubaid: I saw the trace of a wound in Salama’s leg. I said to him, “O Abu Muslim! What is this wound?” He said, “This was inflicted on me on the day of Khaibar and the people said, ‘Salama has been wounded.’ Then I went to the Prophet (sa) and he puffed his saliva in it (i.e. the wound) thrice, and since then I have not had any pain in it till this hour.” Bukhari 5:59:517

64. Muhammad spits into eyes

They said: Allah’s Messenger, his (‘Ali’s) eyes are sore. He then sent for him and he was brought and Allah’s Messenger (sa) applied saliva to his eyes and invoked blessings and he was all right. Reported by Sahl b. Sa’d. Muslim 44:53

65. Muhammad spits on dead body

The Prophet (sa) came to (the grave of) `Abdullah bin Ubai after his body was buried. The body was brought out and then the Prophet (sa) put his saliva over the body and clothed it in his shirt. Narrated by Jabir. Bukhari 2:23:360

66. Muhammad is dwarf and fat

I saw AbuBarzah who came to visit Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad. Then a man named Muslim who was there in the company mentioned it to me. When Ubaydullah saw him, he said: This Muhammad of yours is a dwarf and fat. The old man (i.e. AbuBarzah) understood it. So he said: I did not think that I should remain among people who would make me feel ashamed of the company of Muhammad (sa). Thereupon Ubaydullah said: The company of Muhammad (sa) is a honour for you, not a disgrace. Narrated by AbuBarzah, attributed to AbdusSalam ibn AbuHazim AbuTalut. Abu Dawud 40:4731

The messenger made for a rock on the mountain to climb it. He had become heavy by reason of his age, and moreover he had put on two coats of mail, so when he tried to get up he could not do so. Talha b. ‘Ubaydullah squatted beneath him and lifted him up until he settled comfortably upon it. Ibn Ishaq

67. Muhammad is unclean and has lice in his head

Allah’s Messenger used to visit Um Haram bint Milhan, who would offer him meals. Um-Haram was the wife of Ubada bin As-Samit. Allah’s Messenger, once visited her and she provided him with food and started looking for lice in his head. Narrated by Anas bin Malik. Bukhari 4:52:47

68. Muhammad makes unscientific statements

The Prophet said: If a housefly falls in the drink of anyone of you, he should dip it (in the drink), for one of its wings has a disease and the other has the cure for the disease. Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:54:537

Allah’s Messenger said: The first portent of the Hour will be a fire that will bring together the people from the east to the west; the first meal of the people of Paradise will be Extra-lobe (caudate lobe) of fish-liver. As for the resemblance of the child to its parents: If a man has sexual intercourse with his wife and gets discharge first, the child will resemble the father, and if the woman gets discharge first, the child will resemble her. Narrated by Anas. Bukhari 4:55:546

The Prophet said: Fever is from the heat of the hellfire; so abate fever with water. Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar. Bukhari 4:54:486

Narrated Abu Dharr: I was sitting behind the Messenger of Allah who was riding a donkey while the sun was setting. He asked: Do you know where this sets? I replied: Allah and his Apostle know best. He said: It sets in a spring of warm water. Abu Dawud 4002

69. Muhammad fabricates the Quran

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar: During the lifetime of the Prophet we used to avoid chatting leisurely and freely with our wives lest some Divine inspiration might be revealed concerning us. But when the Prophet had died, we started chatting leisurely and freely (with them). Bukhari 7:62:115

70. Muhammad discriminates between messengers

The Prophet said: I am the most honourable messenger; on the Day of Judgement only I will think of my people. Bukhari 97:36

A Muslim and a Jew quarreled. The Muslim taking an oath, said, “By Him Who has preferred Muhammad over all people…!” The Jew said, “By Him Who has preferred Moses, over all people.” The Muslim raised his hand and slapped the Jew who came to the Prophet to tell him what had happened between him and the Muslim. The Prophet said, “Don’t give me superiority over Moses, for the people will become unconscious (on the Day of Resurrection) and I will be the first to gain consciousness to see Moses standing and holding a side of Allah’s Throne. I will not know if he has been among those people who have become unconscious; and that he has gained consciousness before me, or he has been amongst those whom Allah has exempted.” Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:55:620



The Quran calls for peace and tolerance: verse examples


Here are some of the verses referred to in our study Quran, the messenger of peace and tolerance:

Surely those who acknowledge, and those who are Jews, and Christians, and who are from other religions, whoever acknowledges God and the Last Day and does right, surely their reward is with their Lord, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. 2:62

Forgive them and overlook until God brings His will: certainly God is capable of all things. 2:109

And they say: None enters paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian. These are their own wishes. Say: Produce an evidence for what you are claiming, if you are truthful./ Nay, whoever submits himself to God and is a doer of good, he shall get his reward with his Sustainer; on such shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. 2:111-112

And the Jews say, “The Christians are based on nothing”, and the Christians say, “The Jews are based on nothing”,  while they both recite the Book! Similarly, those who do not know say the same; but God will judge between them on the day of Resurrection in what they disputed. 2:113

And who could be more evil than those who prohibit God’s temples of worship so that His name not be commemorated therein and strive for their ruin? – while they ought not to enter therein except fearfully …/ To God belongs the East and the West, so wherever you turn, there is God’s presence. Behold, God is all-encompassing, all-knowing. 2:114-115

They said: Be Jews or Christians so that you may be guided! Say: No, rather the creed of Abraham the upright, who turned away from all that is false; for he was not of those who set up partners./ Say: We acknowledge God, and that which is revealed unto us, and to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Patriarchs, and that which was given to Moses and Jesus, and that which was given to all the other prophets from their Sustainer. 2:135-136

Or do you say that Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the Patriarchs were all Jewish or Christians (or e.g., Muhammadans)? Say: Do you know more than God does? Who is more wicked than one who conceals the testimony (‘shahada’) with him from God? But God is not unmindful of what you do./ That was a community that passed away; to them is what they earned and to you is what you have earned; you will not be asked about what they did. 2:140-141

And thus have We made you a balanced nation so that you may be witness over the people, and that the messenger may be witness over you. And We made the focal point that you came on only to distinguish who follows the messenger from those who will turn on their heels. 2:143

And to each is a direction to which he turns: so race each other in good works. Wherever you may be, God will bring you all together. Indeed God is capable of all things. 2:148

And do not consume one another’s possessions wrongfully by bribing the decision-makers so that you may consume a part of other people’s belongings illicitly and knowingly. 2:188

And fight in the cause of God against those who wage war against you, but do not aggress, for God certainly does not love the aggressors. 2:190

O you who acknowledge, join in peace, all of you, and do not follow the footsteps of the Devil, for, verily he is to you an open foe. 2:208

And do not make God, by your oaths, a hindrance to your doing good and being aware and making peace among mankind. God is Hearer, Knower. 2:224

A person should not be burdened beyond its means. No mother shall be harmed because of her child, nor shall a father be harmed because of his child. For the guardian is the same requirement. So if they wish to separate out of mutual agreement and council, then there is no blame on them. 2:233

There is no compulsion in religion; the right way has become distinct from error; so, whoever rejects false deities and acknowledges God has grasped the firmest handle that never breaks; and God is Hearer, Knower. 2:256

O you who acknowledge, spend from the good things that you have earned, and from what We have brought forth from the earth. And choose not for your spending the bad things which you yourselves would not accept without averting your eyes in disdain. And know that God is self-sufficient, ever to be praised. 2:267

You are not responsible for their guidance, but it is God who will guide whoever He wishes. And whatever you spend out of goodness is for your own souls. And anything you spend should be in seeking the face of God. And whatever you spend out of goodness will be returned to you, and you will not be wronged. 2:272

Those who spend their wealth on the needy by night and by day, secretly or openly, have their reward with their Sustainer; and they have nothing to fear nor will they grieve. 2:274

God bears witness (shahada) that there is no god but He (La Ilaha Illa Allah), and so do the Forces and those of knowledge, upright with equity: there is no god but He, the Almighty, the Wise. 3:18

As for those (Christians and others) who acknowledge and do good works He will grant their reward in full. 3:57

Among the people of the book are those whom if you entrust him with a large amount he gives it back to you, and there are those whom if you entrust with one gold coin he will not return it to you unless you are standing over him. That is because they said, “We have no obligation towards the Gentiles.” They say about God lies while knowing. 3:75

Except those who repent after this and make amends, then God is Forgiver, Merciful. 3:89

And hold firmly to the Rope of God, all of you, and do not be divided. 3:103

And do not be like the ones who became divided and differed after the clear proofs had come to them. And for them is a painful retribution. 3:105

The ones who spend in prosperity and hardship, and who restrain their anger, and who pardon the people; because God loves the good-doers. 3:134

You shall most certainly be tried in your possessions and your selves, and you shall hear from those who were given the Book before you and from the polytheists much hurt; but if you are patient and aware, then this indeed will be a matter of great determination. 3:186

And surely among the people of the Book are those who acknowledge God and what was sent down to you and what was sent down to them; they revere God and they do not purchase with God’s messages a cheap price. They will have their recompense with their Sustainer; for God is swift in reckoning. 3:199

And whoever does evil or wrongs himself but afterwards seeks God’s forgiveness, he will find God Oft Forgiving, Most Merciful. 4:10

O you who acknowledge, do not consume one another’s wealth wrongfully, except through a trade, which is mutually agreed by you. Do not destroy yourselves; certainly, God is Merciful towards you./ And whoever does that through aggression and injustice, We shall soon cast him into the fire. And that is easy for God. 4:29-30

Serve God and do not set up anything with Him, and be kind to the parents, and the relatives, and the needy, and the neighbor who is of kin, and the neighbor nearby, and close friend, and the wayfarer, and those with whom you have contractual rights. Verily, God does not like the arrogant, the boastful. 4:36

Whoever mediates (a good deed) with a good mediation, he will have a reward of it; and whoever mediates with an evil mediation, he will receive a share of it; for, indeed, God has control over everything./ And when you are greeted with a greeting, then return an even better greeting or (at least) return the same. Verily, God keeps count indeed of all things. 4:85-86

But if they retire from you, and did not fight you, and they offer you peace; then God does not make for you a way against them. 4:90

O you who acknowledge, if you go forth in the cause of God, you shall investigate carefully. And do not say to anyone who greets you with peace, “You are not an acknowledger!” You are seeking the vanity of this world; but with God are many riches. That is how you were before, but God favoured you, so investigate carefully. God is expert over what you do. 4:94

O you who acknowledge, be upright with equity, as witnesses to (the oneness of) God, even if against yourselves or parents or kin, and whether it be against rich or poor, God is nearer unto both, so do not follow your desires from being just. 4:135

Those who acknowledge, then reject, then acknowledge, then reject, then they increase in rejection; God was neither to forgive them nor to guide them to the path. 4:137

When you hear God’s messages being rejected and ridiculed in, then do not sit with them until they move on to a different topic. 4:140

Let not the hatred of another people, because they had barred you from the Restricted Temple, tempt you to aggress. Cooperate with one another in goodness and righteousness, and do not bind together in sin and animosity. 5:2

O you who acknowledge, be upright with equity, as witnesses to (the oneness of) God, and let not the hatred towards a people make you deviate from justice. Be just, for it is closer to awareness, and be aware of God. God is fully Aware of what you do. 5:8

Through this Book, God guides to Paths of Peace, those who seek His Approval. He brings them out of darkness into the light of His grace, and guides them to the straight path. 5:16

Unto each among you have we appointed laws and an open way. If God had so willed, He would have made you a single people, but He tests you in what He has given you: so strive with one another as in a race in good works. The goal of you all is to God; it is He that will show you the truth of the matters in which you differ. 5:48

If the people of the Book only would have acknowledged and been aware, We would have cancelled for them their sins and admitted them into gardens of bliss./ If they had upheld the Torah, the Gospel, and all what was sent down to them from their Sustainer, they would have been rewarded from above them and below their feet. From among them is a pious nation, but many of them commit evil. 5:65-66

O you who acknowledge, you are responsible for your own selves; none who are misguided can harm you when you are guided. To God is your return, all of you, and then He will inform you of what you have done. 5:105

And do not turn away those who call on their Sustainer morning and evening seeking His presence; you are not responsible for their account, nor are they responsible for your account; if you turn them away, then you will be of the wicked. 6:52

Thus We test them with one another, so that they may say, “Are these the ones whom God has blessed from amongst us?” Is God not aware of the thankful? 6:53

If those who acknowledge Our messages come to you, then say, “Peace be upon you, our Sustainer has decreed mercy upon Himself, that any of you who commits sin out of ignorance and then repents afterwards and reforms, then He is Forgiving, Compassionate.” 6:54

And when you see those who engage in mocking Our messages, then turn away from them until they move on to a different topic. 6:68

Leave alone those who have taken their system as a game and diversion, and this worldly life has tempted them. Remind with it that a person will suffer for what s/he has earned, s/he will not have besides God any supporter nor intercessor; and even if s/he offers every ransom, none will be accepted from it. 6:70

Such is God, your Sustainer, there is no god but He; creator of all things, so serve Him alone. And He is caretaker over all things./ Sights encompass Him not, but He encompasses all sights; and He is Unfathomable, All-aware./ Insights have certainly come to you from your Sustainer; then whoever sights, does so for his own self, and whoever is blinded, does the same. And (say): I am not over you an overseer. 6:102-104

If God had willed, they would not have set up associates. We did not make you over them a guardian, nor are you their caretaker./ Do not insult those whom they invoke other than God, lest they insult God out of ignorance. And to every community We have made their doings appearing fair; then to their Sustainer is their ultimate return and He will then inform them of what they were doing. 6:107-108

Say: With God is the conclusive argument. If He wished He would have guided you all. 6:149

Those who break the unity of their Deen and become sects, you have nothing to do with them whatsoever. Their case will go to God and He will then tell them what they had been doing. 6:159

So, do not spread corruption on Earth after it has been set in order. And call unto Him with fear and longing: God’s mercy is ever near unto the doers of good!  7:56

Hold to forgiveness, and enjoin kindness; and leave alone those who choose to remain ignorant. 7:199

And if they (the opponents) incline to peace, then you also incline to it, and place your trust in God: verily He is the Hearer, the Knower. 8:61

And if any of the idolaters seeks your protection, then protect him so that he may hear God’s words, then let him reach his sanctity. This is because they are a people who do not know. 9:6

If they reject you, then say: My works are for me, and your works are for you. You are innocent of what I do, and I am innocent of what you do. 10:41

And had your Sustainer so willed, all who on Earth would have acknowledged. Will you then force the people to become acknowledgers?/ And it is not to a self that it can attain conviction, except by God’s leave, and He casts uncleanness on those who do not reason./ Say: … 10:99-101

Say: “O people, the truth has come to you from your Lord, so whoever is guided is being guided for himself and whoever is misguided will remain so, and I am not a caretaker over you.”/ And follow what is being inspired to you and be patient until God judges. And He is the best of judges. 10:108-109

And O my people, ask forgiveness of your Sustainer and turn to Him, He will send the Heaven down upon you in torrents and add strength to your strength, so do not turn away as evildoers. 11:52

Be patient, for God does not waste the reward of the good doers. 11:115

He sends down water from the Heaven, and the channels flow, each according to its measure, and the torrent bears away to foam that mounts up to the surface. And from what they melt in the fire for making ornaments or tools arises a scum like it. Thus does God compare the real and the false. Then the scum disappears as a worthless thing; while that which is of benefit to mankind remains on the Earth. Thus does God set forth parables. 13:17

Those who are patient longing for their Sustainer’s Countenance; and they establish divine order and spend of what We have given them, secretly and openly, and they counter evil with good; theirs will be an abode excellent. 13:22

When Abraham said: O My Sustainer, make this town a sanctuary, and keep me and my ‘descendents’ away from serving idols…/ O My Sustainer, they have misguided many from amongst the people. So, whoever follows me, then he is of me, and whoever disobeys me, then You are Forgiving, Compassionate. 14:35-36

And We have created not the Heavens and the Earth and all between them except with the truth. And indeed the Hour is coming; so forgive them with kindly forgiveness. 15:85

And to God is the direction of the way, but some ways go not straight. And if He wished, He could have guided you all. 16:9

Surely God enjoins justice and kindness and generosity towards fellow-men, and He forbids indecency and injustice and transgression. 16:90

Call (all) to the path of your Sustainer with wisdom and beautiful exhortation, and reason with them in the most kindly manner – for your Sustainer knows best who deviates from His path, and He knows best who are the guided ones. 16:125

And tell My servants to speak only that which is best and kindest. Surely, Devil stirs up discord between them. Surely, Devil is to man a clear enemy./ Your Sustainer is fully aware of you, if He wishes He will have mercy on you, or if He wishes He will chastise you. We have not sent you as a guardian over them. 17:53-54

Say: Everyone works according to his own; and your Sustainer is best aware as to who has chosen the best path. 17:84

Some say they were three, the dog being the fourth among them; others say they were five, the dog being the sixth,- doubtfully guessing at the unknown; yet others say they were seven, the dog being the eighth. Say: My Sustainer knows best their number; none knows them but a few. So do not argue about them except with clear knowledge, nor inquire any of them (who argue) about them.” 18:22

And say: The truth is from your Sustainer, so whoever wills let him acknowledge, and whoever wills let him reject. 18:29

Surely, those who acknowledge and do good works, the Beneficent will endow them with love. 19:96

Go, both of you, to Pharaoh, for he has transgressed./ So say to him soft words, perhaps he will remember or be concerned. 20:43-44

This is your nation, one nation, since I am the Sustainer of you all: so worship Me alone./ But they split up their affair among themselves, yet unto Us they shall all return./ So whosoever does good work and he is an acknowledger, then his efforts will not be rejected: for We are recording it for him. 21:92-94

Surely those who acknowledge, and those who are Jewish, and the Converts, and the Christians, and the Zoroastrians, and those who set up associates: Certainly, God will decide between them on the Day of Resurrection. For God is witness over all things. 22:17

Those who have been evicted from their homes unjustly, for no reason other than saying, “Our Lord is God!”. And were it not that God repels some people by means of others, then monasteries and churches and synagogues and temples of worship in which God’s name is abundantly remembered, would have been utterly demolished. 22:40

For every nation We have appointed ways of worship which they are to observe. So do not let the matter fall into dispute, but summon them to your Sustainer: for, behold, you are on the right path. 22:67

And certainly, this community of yours is one community and I am your Sustainer. So, remain conscious of Me. 23:52

Those who spread slander are a group among you. Deem it not a bad thing for you. Nay, It is good for you. 24:11

See you not that God is He Whom do glorify all those who are in the Heavens and the Earth, and the birds with wings outspread? Each knows its own worship and its glorification. And God is Aware of what they do. 24:41

The true servants of the Beneficent are those who walk upon the Earth humbly, and when the ignorant ones address them, they say: “Peace!” 25:63

And whosoever repents, and does right has truly turned unto God by true repent­ance./ And those who do not bear false witness, and if they pass by vain talk they pass by with dignity. 25:71-72

And do not deprive people of what is rightfully theirs; and do not act wickedly on Earth by spreading corruption. 26:183

To these We grant twice the reward for that they have been patient. And they counter evil with good, and from Our provisions to them, they give./ And if they come across vain talk, they disregard it and say: “To us are our deeds, and to you, your deeds. Peace be upon you. We do not seek to behave like the ignorant ones.” 28:54-55

And seek the future abode by means of what God has granted you, and forget not your own share in this world, and do good to others as God has done good to you. And spread not corruption on Earth, for God loves not the corruptors. 28:77

Do people think that they will be left to themselves simply because they say, “We believe”, and will not be put to test? 29:2

Do not argue with the people of the Book except in the best manner, except for those of them who are bent on oppression. And tell them: We acknowledge what is revealed to us and to you; our god and your god is One; and to Him do we submit. 29:46

As for those who sincerely strive for Us, We surely guide them onto paths that lead to Us. God is with those who do Good. 29:69

And if We had wished, We could have given every soul its guidance. 32:13 

And incline not to the rejecters and the hypocrites, and do not mind their hurtful talk, and place your trust in God; for God suffices as an advocate. 33:48

“Peace”, a word from the Merciful Sustainer. 36:58

Do you worship what you yourselves carve?/ And God has created you and all that you make/ do (including your worshipping). 37:95-96

“Has he made the gods into One god? This is indeed a strange thing!” 38:5

Say (thus speaks God, cf. 39:11): “O My servants who acknowledged, remain conscious of your Sustainer.” For those who worked righteousness in this world will be a good reward, and the Earth of God is spacious. Those who steadfastly persevere will receive their recompense fully, without reckoning./ Say: “I have been commanded to serve God, devoting the system to Him alone.” 39:10-11

And who is better in saying than one who invites to God, and does good works, and says: “I am one of those who have submitted.”/ But not equal are the good and the bad response. You shall resort to the one which is better. Then the one who was your enemy may become your close friend./ And none can attain this except those who are patient; and none can attain this except those endowed with greatest fortune./ If the Devil misleads you in anything, then you shall seek refuge with God. He is the Hearer, the Knowledgeable. 41:33-36

But not equal are the good and the bad response. You shall resort to the one which is better. Thus, the one who used to be your enemy may become your best friend. 41:34

The Heavens are about to rent asunder from above themselves; and the Forces hymn the praise of their Sustainer and seek for­giveness for those on Earth: Behold! Verily God is the Forgiving, the Merciful./ And those who take allies besides Him, God is Guardian (Protector) over them; and you are not over them a caretaker. 42:5-6

Now had God so willed, He could surely have made them all one single community … / And on whatever you may differ the judgment thereon rests with God. Such is God, my Sustainer: in Him I put my trust, and unto Him I turn. 42:8, 10

He has decreed for you the same religion He ordained for Noah, and We have revealed to you the same Message as We enjoined upon Abraham, Moses, and Jesus: You shall uphold this religion, and do not divide in it. Difficult for those who set up associates is that (unity) to which you invite them. …/ Or do they have associates who decree for them a sharia which has not been authorized by God? 42:13, 21

I am commanded to be just among you: God is our Sustainer as well as your Sustainer; we have our deeds and you have your deeds; let there be no dispute between us and you: God will gather us together, and unto Him is the return. 42:15

Such is the good news from God to His servants who acknowledge and do good works. Say: “I do not ask you for any wage, except that you show compassion to your fellow-men.” And whoever earns a good deed, We shall increase it for him in goodness. Surely, God is Forgiving, Appreciative. 42:23

So disregard them and say, “Peace.” For they will come to know. 43:89

Say to those who acknowledged: they should forgive those who do not look forward to the days of God. He will fully recompense people for whatever they have earned./ Whoever works good does so for himself, and whoever works evil will suffer it. Then to your Sustainer you will be returned. 45:14-15

O mankind! Behold, We have created you as/ of male and female, and made you into nations and groups, that you may know each other. Surely, the most honourable of you in the sight of God is the most conscious of you. Surely, God is All-knowing, All-aware. 49:13

We are fully aware of what they say; but you are not one to compel them; therefore remind with this recital those who mind My warning. 50:45

That no bearer of a burden can bear another’s burden:/ That man can have nothing but what he strives for./ And his efforts will be seen./  Then he shall be fully requited for it. 53:38-41

And the Heaven, He has raised it high, and has set the Balance,/ That you may not transgress in respect of the Balance,/ But keep up the measure with equity and fall not short in the Balance. 55:7-9

God does not prohibit you from those who have not fought you because of your system, nor drove you out of your homes, that you deal kindly and equitably with them. For God loves the equitable./ But God forbids you befriending only those who fought you because of your system, and drove you out of your homes, and helped to drive you out. You shall not ally with them. Those who ally with them, then such are the transgressors. 60:8-9

From God, unto whom there are many ways of ascent./ To Him ascend the Forces and the Divine Inspiration in a Day the measure whereof was as fifty thousand years./ Therefore be patient with a goodly patience. 70:3-5

The Sustainer of the sunrise point and the sunset point: there is no god but Him: so, hold on Him alone as your Protector./ And endure with patience whatever they say, and depart from them with a decent departure./ And leave Me alone to deal with those who give the lie to the truth, while they enjoy the blessings of life. And bear with them for a little while. 73:9-11

Leave Me alone (to deal through My law) with the one I alone have created alone. 74:11

So remind, for you are but a reminder./ You are not over them a controller. 88:21-22

For you your way, and for me my way. 109:6

Quran, the messenger of peace and tolerance

Quran, the messenger of peace


The Quran, the living messenger:

● insists on the ultimate Oneness of Humanity and asks people not to divide into conflicting factions (2:36-38, 3:103, 3:105, 4:1, 6:159, 7:189, 23:52, 30:19-22, 30:32, 42:13, 49:13);

● declares that humans have been made into nations and groups so that they may know and understand each other – and not to convert or subjugate others (49:13);

● acknowledges equal human rights and dignity of all individuals, regardless of their status and identities, and recognizes superiority only by awareness (2:30-34, 4:32, 17:70, 33:35, 46:19, 49:13, 95:4);

● calls on people to focus on their common goals as humans and to strive with one another as in a race in good works (2:139, 2:148, 5:48, 10:41, 29:2);

● acknowledges the rainbow of the collective human consciousness, or mind’s universe, which is knit with countless heavenly paths (6:107-108, 6:149, 13:17, 23:17-20, 23:32, 51:7-8, 70:3-5);

● asserts that there are infinite ways that lead to the Divine and spiritual awareness (‘plural paths’, 29:69; cf. 2:111-115, 2:274, 3:199, 11:52, 16:9, 18:24, 70:3-5, 92:4-10);

● states that, while there is only one universal principle of islam (peace-seeking), there are plural paths of peace to achieve that principle (subul as-salaam, 5:16; cf. 2:62, 2:111-112, 2:177, 3:57, 3:199, 4:94, 5:69, 6:52-53, 13:17, 19:96, 70:3-5);

● upholds the notions of a pluralistic society with peaceful intercommunal coexistence and cooperation (2:208, 2:136-139, 2:143, 3:64, 3:103, 5:2, 5:48, 15:70, 17:84, 21:71, 23:52, 26:164-165, 42:8-10, 42:15);

● condemns prejudice and bigotry and promotes acceptance of the differences (2:111-113, 2:148, 3:75, 4:94, 5:48, 5:65-66, 10:99-101, 18:29, 42:15, 74:11);

● recognizes the right of everyone to enjoy the full freedom of thought, opinion and expression, without being controlled by others, since everyone’s caretaker is God (2:272, 2:42, 3:71, 6:102-104, 6:107-108, 42:5-6);

● promotes the concepts of peaceful coexistence of all religions, or religious pluralism, and multidimensionality of the Truth (2:135-136, 2:148, 3:57, 3:64, 5:48, 5:65-66, 6:52-53, 6:149, 6:159, 13:4, 21:92-94, 22:17, 22:67, 23:17-32, 24:41, 42:8-10, 42:15, 70:3-5, 74:11);

● recognizes the sanctity of all places of worship – monasteries, churches, synagogues, mosques, temples and the likes (2:114-115, 5:48, 22:40, 22:67, 24:36, 24:41, 72:18);

● offers complete freedom of choice either to accept or reject the guidance (2:256, 2:272, 10:108-109, 18:29, 32:13, 74:11, 109:6);

● denounces coercion in matters of faith and supports everyone’s right to freedom of creed, religion and vision (2:256, 6:102-104, 6:149, 10:99-101, 18:29, 22:40, 42:8-10, 50:45, 74:11, 88:21-22, 109:6);

● asks not to insult others’ gods lest others insult God out of ignorance (6:108);

● acknowledges the need to allow people to worship their chosen idols – for the sake of intercommunal peace and harmony (7:150, 14:35-36, 20:90-94, 37:95-96, 38:5, 74:11, 109:6);

● asks to focus on our own behaviour, instead of judging other people’s behaviour, while leaving the final judgment to God alone (2:113, 2:141, 5:105, 6:149, 20:135, 22:17, 22:67, 27:78, 45:14, 49:11, 68:7, 74:11);

● recommends peaceful engagements and dialogues with differing religious groups by means of wisdom and in the kindest manner (3:159, 10:99-101, 16:125, 17:53-54, 20:43-44, 29:46);

● asks to avoid conjecture and not to argue with differing groups in matters of which one has little information (3:66,10:36, 2:111, 6:116, 18:22-26, 21:24, 45:24, 49:6, 53:28);

● calls for tolerance and peaceful cooperation even if dialogues fail or messages fall on deaf ears (3:186, 5:2, 6:70, 7:199, 10:41, 109:6);

● asks to always resort to a better response and repel evil with good, which could turn an enemy into a friend (3:103, 7:199, 13:22, 28:54-55, 41:34, 73:10-11);

● instructs to deal with mockers and bullies in a most peaceful manner – with patience, tolerance and restraint (25:63, 25:72, 4:140, 6:68, 3:186, 25:63, 25:71-72, 33:48, 109:6);

● prescribes no blasphemy law and no punishment for apostasy or rejection, while reassuring that there is always room for repentance (3:89, 3:85-90, 4:10, 4:137, 6:54, 7:180, 33:57);

● unequivocally denounces any act of hatred, aggression, corruption, homicide and mischief on Earth (2:190, 5:2, 5:32, 7:56, 7: 74, 13:25, 16:90, 26:151-152,  26:183, 27:48 -49, 28:77, 42:42 , 47:22 -23);

● asks to always stand for justice, without influence of hatred or bias, even if this goes against ourselves or our parents or relatives, or against rich or poor (3:18, 4:135, 5:2, 5:8, 6:152, 16:90);

● asks to speak to each other only that which is best and kindest (17:53-54, 20:43-44, 41:33-36);

● tells to do good to all people, including those who are bad (2:224, 2:272, 4:36, 4:85-86, 9:6, 16:90, 28:77, 42:23);

● asks to help others by spending from the goodies and not to give them things that we dislike for ourselves (2:267);

● asks to make due allowance for human nature, which is inherently weak and forgetful, and not to be harsh with those who err (4:28, 7:199, 9:6, 11:115, 20:115, 73:9-10);

● tells to restrain anger and forgive others for their wrong doings, and thereby to let go of resentments and move forward (2:109, 2:263, 3:134, 4:149, 5:13, 7:199, 15:85, 24:11, 42:37, 42:40, 42:43,  45:14,  64:14);

● asks to make things easy for people – without causing them undue hardship or demanding of them excessive efforts (2:286, 6:152, 7:42, 23:62, 42:23);

● calls on to deal kindly and equitably with everyone, unless one has to address an aggressor (4:36, 16:90, 42:23, 60:8-9);

● calls on to stand up for human rights against oppression and persecution; and thus sanctions war only for self-defense and as the last resort, while reminding that hostilities must be brought to an end as quickly as possible and the minute the enemy sues for peace (2:190-193, 2:2116-217, 4:75, 8:61-65, 22:40, 42:41, 60:7-8; cf. 2:216, 4:89, 5:33, 8:12, 8:39, 9:5, 9:29, 9:123, 47:4);

● tells to protect anyone who seeks safety and peace, even if s/he is from the hostile camp and in times of war (9:6, 60:7-9);

● encourages to continuously strive for making peace with all and also to mediate peace processes with opponents, especially with those who come with an offer of peace (2:208, 2:224, 4:85-86, 4:90, 4:94, 8:61-62);

● asks to greet with peace everyone, including idolaters, mockers and rejecters (6:54, 13:24, 20:47, 33:44, 24:61, 28:55, 43:89, 51:25);

● advises to return any greeting of peace with ‘a better greeting or at least a similar one’ (4:86);

● asks to observe the balance throughout the universe and to become an epitome of this balance by following the golden mean (2:143, 2:219, 2:238, 17:29, 25:67, 55:7-9, 68:28);

● asks in all dealings to measure with a just balance and not to deprive others of what is rightfully theirs (2:188, 2:274-275, 3:18, 4:29-30, 6:152, 26:181 -183, 53:38-41);

● portrays God mainly as an infinitely merciful and all-forgiving god rather than a cruel, vengeful deity, which requires us to incarnate these divine attributes of mercy and compassion in our interactions with others (1:1-3, 2:274, 6:12, 15:56, 36:58, 39:53, 53:38-41, 17:20, 40:7, 42:5-6); and

● constantly emphasizes that there are infinite paths that lead to the ultimate Good and so towards salvation (2:62, 2:111-115, 2:121, 2:135-136, 2:140-141, 2:148, 2:286, 3:57, 3:64, 3:199, 4:94, 5:16, 5:43-45, 5:46-48, 5:69, 5:77, 6:52, 6:107-108, 6:165, 10:41, 11:115, 16:9, 18:24, 19:96, 21:92-94, 22:17, 22:40, 22:67-69, 24:41, 29:46, 29:69, 39:10-11 , 42:15-16, 42:23, 45:15, 49:13, 53:39, 70:3-5, 92:4).


Here are some of the verses cited above:

The Quran calls for peace and tolerance: verse examples

Common sense prohibits Hadith

Common sense prohibits Hadith

Below we will briefly recall some of the reasons why our common sense doesn’t allow us to accept Hadith as a divine source of guidance:

Hadiths are unreliable due to their questionable ways of oral transmission

Hadiths are hearsays and gossips passed along from mouth to mouth from generation to generation about the Prophet’s alleged words and deeds. Recorded centuries after the alleged events on the basis of long chains of unreliable oral transmissions, these words of mouth must have been naturally and almost certainly distorted by amnesia, confabulations and conjectures. And also must have been too often tainted with dubious motives and intentions, further complicated by the power struggles, theological disputes and conflicts of interests. Not to spotlight the other serious issues involved with the very large time-gap in the long chain between their alleged first oral narrations and their eventual recordings in writing.

Most hadiths were allegedly transmitted by juvenile whisperers and collected by unrelated outsiders

Most of the Hadith literature can be traced to five individuals: Abu Hurairah (was 19 y.o. when the Prophet died; knew him for 3 years; a storyteller who was accused by several notable sahaba as a ‘liar’), Aisha (was 18 y.o. when the Prophet died; one of his wives; got involved in the ‘power struggle’), Anas ibn Malik (was 20 y.o. when the Prophet died; worked as his servant), Abdullah ibn Umar (was 22 y.o. when the Prophet died) and Ibn Abbas (was 9 or 14 y.o. when the Prophet died). Thus, most of what is passed on to us as the secondary source of Islam is mainly based on the recollection of immature minds, of teens and early twenties, including some with controversial credentials. Then, when we look at the collectors of hadith, we observe that all the six major sets of Hadith were actually compiled by Persians and not by Arabs who had direct lineage and knowledge of the Prophet’s life.

All Muslims, including all hadith collectors, are hadith rejecters to various extents

Ahmed Ibn Hanbal collected about 700,000 hadiths and rejected 94% of them as unreliable. Bukhari collected about 600,000 hadiths and rejected more than 99% of them as fabricated. Muslim collected 300,000 hadiths and rejected almost 99% of them as false or dubious. Tirmizi collected 300,000 hadiths and rejected about 99% of them as unreliable. Abu Dawood collected 500,000 hadiths and rejected over 99% of them as fabricated. We get similar statistics about other hadith collectors.

Both Sunni and Shia hadith collections lose their credibility as they widely differ while rejecting hadiths of each other

Sunnis use the six major hadith collections based on the narrators and transmitters who, in the disputes over leadership following the demise of the Prophet, took the side of Abu Bakr (and Aisha) and Umar rather than Ali. Shias, on the other hand, totally reject all these six collections as unreliable and corrupted and prefer narrations sourced to Ali and ‘Ahl e Bayt’ and their supporters. Thus Shias have their own extensive hadith collections including ‘The Four Books’, which were compiled by three authors known as the ‘Three Muhammads’ and which were followed by extensive commentaries by later authors and clerics. These striking differences can be explained by those socio-political rows during the earlier centuries of Islam and the related sectarian bias.

Hadith too often contradicts not only the Quran but also itself, as well as logic, common sense and universal values

The criteria used by the hadith collectors to judge authenticity of individual hadith texts (matn) and their chains of transmitters (isnad) suffer from serious limitations. This explains why hadiths, even the so-called sahih hadiths, are so much contradictory and confused. They too often contradict the Quran, contradict other hadiths, contradict logic and common sense and also contradict the universal values of humanity including the basic human decency. These points are well addressed in numerous recent studies, including ‘The Criminals of Islam’ by Dr Shabbir Ahmed and ‘Hadith: A Re-Evaluation’ by Kassim Ahmad.

Here are two good links for quick reference:

Bukhari Hadith by Joseph Islam

Why Trash All the Hadiths? by Edip Yuksel

Common sense prohibits Hadith 2

Earlier Muslims prohibited hadiths

Earlier Muslims prohibited hadiths

It is traditionally accepted that the earliest criticism of Hadith goes back to the Prophet himself as he allegedly prohibited recording of hadiths. Also, his immediate successors, the first four Caliphs, reportedly banned and burnt all hadith materials as they tried to prevent creation of secondary authorities next to the Quran.

Then, along with these successors, many other prominent sahaba, including Ibn Abbas, Abdullah bin Masood, Abdullah bin Omar, Abu Saeed Khudri and Zaid bin Sabit, allegedly held this same vociferous opposition to the narration or writing of the Hadith. Here are a few examples:

When Zaid bin Sabit the calligrapher, after he was called by Caliph Mur’waan, saw some people writing down hadiths, he said, “It is quite possible that the tradition may not have been explained to you in the same way as it has been written.” (Jama e Biyaan ul Ilm)

When Zaid bin Sabit had to go to Amir Mua’wiyya, he asked him for a hadith which Zaid explained. The Amir asked a person to write it. Zaid took it from the person who had written the hadith and erased it. He said, it was Messenger’s order not to write anything about him. (Abu Dawood, kitabb ul Ilm)

A collection was brought before Abdullah bin Masood, that contained some hadiths. He incinerated them and said, “I beg you for God’s sake, whoever has any knowledge of any person in possession of hadith, must let me know, so that I may reach him. Those before you with Divine Books have been annihilated because of this habit. They forgot about the Book of God”. (Jama e Biyaan ul Ilm)

Ibn Abbas prevented others from writing of hadith. He warned them that previous nations were destroyed due to causes like this, as he used to say: “The communities before you swerved from the right path because of books they wrote like yours.” The same was the situation with Abdullah bin Omar. (Jama e Biyaan ul Ilm)

When Shaddad asked Ibn Abbas whether the Prophet had left anything behind, he replied: “Only what are inscribed between the pages on the Quran.” (Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood)

Abu Nazra asked Abu Saeed Khudri if he could write the hadiths that he heard from his lips? He replied, “Do you intend to make manuscripts?” (Jama e Biyaan ul Ilm)

After the sahaba, many tabieen, i.e., companions of the companions, such as Allqa, Musrooq, Qasim S’bee, Mansoor, Mugheera, Umsh and many others, as well as many tabe tabieen, reportedly considered recording and following of the Hadith as religiously illegitimate.

As suggested by further reports, this same negative attitude towards hadiths continued to be DOMINANT among earlier generations of Muslims in general. During this period, the strongest opposition to hadiths was expressly maintained by many who adhered to groups like Ahl al-Kalam, Kharijite, Khazimiyya, Haruri and Mutazilites, as well as many academic scholars of the time, with strident examples like the Kharijite Abd Allah Ibn Ibad and the Mutaziltes al-Nazzam. As Michael Cook demonstrates1:

“Opposition to writing (of hadiths) was once both general and prevalent: general in the sense that it is attested for all major centres of Muslim learning (including Basra, Kufa, Medina, Mecca, Yemen and Syria), and prevalent in the sense that it was the norm from which those who wished to sanction the writing of Tradition were departing.”

Apparently by violating this strict prohibition by the Prophet and his closest companions and followers, hadiths gradually surfaced as the so-called second source of Islam, through the process of unreliable oral transmission and fabrication, and then endlessly mushroomed in an almost endless number over a period of many decades. Understandably, this tremendous volume of oral hearsays so much overwhelmed the then hadith scholars that, in order to judge and distinguish between the so-called ‘true’ and ‘false’ hadiths, they were left with no option other than desperately relying on some further hearsays accompanied by their own speculation. Cross-analysis of many historical sources including the Hadith demonstrates how – under the influence of various complex factors along with the typical political foul play of the time – all the orthodox schools of Islamic thought, including the initially Quran-centric Hanafi, were gradually swept over by the growing Hadith-centric principles of Shafi and, consequently, Muslims of later centuries eventually became diverted from the original Quran-centric teachings of Islam due to their increasing reliance on Hadith.

On this issue, “Hadith as Scripture” by Prof. Aisha Musa is an invaluable research work, which Arnold Yasin Mol reviews as follows (part):

“Without a doubt Prof. Musa shows that the proponents of Hadith as divine authority were the new kids on the block around 800CE as their writings show they were trying to convince the majority of Muslims to accept Hadith as divine. The famous Kitab Jima al-Ilm (The book of the amalgamation of Knowledge) and other works by Imam Shafi are written as a response to other writings which professed the Qur’an alone as divine source and authority. And thus show Qur’an alone was not only present in early Islam, but also dominant among Muslims. It is amazing also to know that no scrap of writing has remained of these Qur’an “alone” scholars. Which in my eyes not only show political influence in the debate (the rulers clearly wanted no traces remained), but also that the arguments supporting Hadith were not as strong as the majority believes. The following of Hadith became dominant as there was no literature remaining that attacked this view. … “The role they (the Hadith) have played has been so influential for so long that both Muslims and non-Muslims alike generally assume they have always uncontested authority. However, a survey of Islamic history shows that the Hadith did not always enjoy such widespread acceptance and authority. … Ignorance of these early disputes has contributed to the common misconception that opposition to the Hadith as an authoritative scriptural source of law and guidance is a modern-day, Western, Orientalist-influenced heresy.” (Introduction to the book)

Some Islamic scholars have suggested that the original anti-hadith stance by the earlier generations of Muslims led to the ‘Golden Age of Islam’, as the Quran was able to stand up to critical thinking and questioning; and Muslims were thus schooled to be inquisitive and to seek answers to every quandary. Even Jim Al-Khalili, a secular British physicist, noticed2:

“Clearly, the scientific revolution of the Abbasids would not have taken place if not for Islam – in contrast to the spread of Christianity over the preceding centuries, which had nothing like the same effect in stimulating and encouraging original scientific thinking. The brand of Islam between the beginning of the ninth and the end of the 11th century was one that promoted a spirit of free thinking, tolerance and rationalism. The comfortable compatibility between science and religion in medieval Baghdad contrasts starkly with the contradictions and conflict between rational science and many religious faiths in the world today.”


1 The Muslim opposition to the writing of hadith in early Islam by Michael Cook

2 It’s time to herald the Arabic science that prefigured Darwin and Newton

Why the Arabic world turned away from science

Further reading:

The Quran prohibited hadiths

Hadith prohibited Hadith

The first four Caliphs prohibited hadiths

Divine messages in our own self

Divine messages in our own self

The Quran calls on us to read the divine messages (ayat) in our own self

And in the Earth are MESSAGES for those who are convinced. 51:20

And in your own selves: Do you not then see? 51:21

Reading these verses in context

To better understand the interesting passage above, it is important that we read it in its context. The latter highlights God’s infinite creative power manifested throughout the Universe (‘Heaven’, 51:7, 51:22, 51:23, 51:47) through numerous messages or ayat scripted all over the Heaven and the Earth as well as our own self (51:20-23):

By those that scatter with scattering; 51:1

And those that bear the heavy weights; 51:2

And those that speed along with gentle ease; 51:3

And those that apportion the affair; 51:4

Verily, what you are promised is true indeed. 51:5 …

By the Heaven knit with ways and waves, 51:7

Surely you are of diverse opinions. 51:8

And in the Earth are MESSAGES for those who are convinced. 51:20

And in your own selves: Do you not then see? 51:21

And in the Heaven is your sustenance and what you are promised. 51:22

Then, by the Sustainer of the Heaven and the Earth, it is the very truth, as true as that you speak! 51:23

And it is We who have built the Heaven with power; and most surely it is We who are expanding. 51:47

And the Earth have We spread out wide – and how well have We ordered it! 51:48

And in everything have We created oppos­ites, so that you might bear in mind (that God alone is One). 51:49 …   

And I have not created the invisibles and the humans but to serve Me alone. 51:56

I seek no sustenance from them, nor do I want them to feed Me. 51:57

Surely God is the Provider of sustenance, the One with power, the Strong. 51:58

The chapter 51 starts with a reference to divine controllers, i.e., natural forces or agents operating throughout the Heaven, such as wind that drives clouds or gravitation that governs celestial bodies (51:1-4). Next it equates the infinite diversity and depth of the physical Heaven1 with those of our mind’s Heaven (51:7-8, 51:20-23; cf. 23:17-32). Next it affirms that Heaven contains both our sustenance and what we are promised (51:22-23). It then, towards the end of the sura, comes back to the Heaven (note the ring structure in the recurrence) and relates the ever-expanding Universe to its primal origin, probably alluding to Big Bang (51:47-48), while portraying cosmic evolution as a dialectical process (51:49). The latter points to the duality of everything sustained and so to the oneness and uniqueness of its Sustainer (51:49, 51:23) who seeks no sustenance from anything, while on Him depends sustenance of everything (51:56-58; cf. 35:15-17, 3:97, 29:6).

Heaven, which is thus an embodiment of divine almightiness (‘And it is We who have built the Heaven with power. 51:47’), is depicted here as the source of our provisions (‘in the Heaven is your sustenance … 51:22’). The vital role of the Heaven for our sustenance is both physical and spiritual. Physical, e.g., with galaxies that sustain our solar system and hence our planet Earth and the life on it, or e.g., with heavenly gifts of CO2, water and sunlight for photosynthesis that produces our food. Also spiritual, e.g., as an endless canvas for painting of our imagination and an inexhaustible source of food for thought that guides us to wisdom (cf. 15:16).

However, the subsequent phrase ‘and what you are promised. 51:22 (cf. 51:5), in contrast, refers to future tense. It insists that God’s endless creative power and wisdom, thus manifested in our perceivable Heaven, must potentially transcend and extend to other Heavens and to further horizons – to the dimensions of the Transcendent (al-akhirat, the End, the whole, holistic).

The truth of God’s infinite creative power, including power to re-create – evident all over the Heaven and the Earth as well as in our own self (51:20-22; cf. 7:172, 16:13) – is thus linked with the Transcendent that represents the holistic truth about the totality of this purposeful creation (51:22-23; cf. 51:5).

This certainty about the Transcendent, thus based on God’s omnipotence and omniscience, is then assertively compared with the certainty about our own existence, something that we are absolutely, axiomatic­ally conscious of – as it is instantly witnessed by us by our awareness of our own mind through our ability to think conceptually (‘as true as that you speak! 51:23).

Here we come across a foundational axiom of modern philosophy: cogito ergo sum (‘I think, therefore I am’), also expressed as Dubito, ergo cogito, ergo sum (‘I doubt, therefore I think, therefore I am’). In other words, if I doubt whether I exist or not, then something or someone must be doing the doubting, therefore the very fact that I doubt proves my existence.

Though the above Quranic reasoning affirms this Cartesian logic, it doesn’t stop there. It goes beyond, as we will observe below …

Awareness of our own self leads to awareness of God and the Transcendent

The reasoning in the Quran about God and the Transcendent evolves as follows:

Finite cannot stand on itself. It requires the ultimate support of the infinite. It is because finite is not self-sustaining; to explain the deepest reason of its existence, it has to eventually go back to ask the independent, infinite (55:26-29, 51:49, 52:35-38). Obviously, our ‘finite existence’ would not sustain if it was not based on and fed by an ‘infinite existence’ (6:14, 35:15, 51:56-57, 55:29, 3:109).

Thus our awareness about our own being (‘I think, therefore I am.’ – Descartes; cf. ‘as true as that you speak! 51:23) rationally demands our awareness about the greatest being (5:116, 6:75-79) who, by holistic logic, must be ‘absolutely One and Independent’ (112:1-4; 35:15, 3:97, 29:6). This should lead us to the acknowledgement (iman) of one God’s infinite existence (2:255).

However, this holistic awareness about an inexhaustible Divine demands the related awareness about the ‘Whole’ of divine manifestation; not only in space and time, but also in all possible dimensions (30:7). In other words, our awareness about our Creator involves our awareness about the logical necessity of seeing everything within the grand context of the totality of His creation up to its completeness (30:7, 51:22).

But if the entire creation is devised by the same architect – whose omnipotence and omniscience are manifested through the rational order of the cosmic affairs – it cannot be a meaningless jumble (51:1-4, 47-48). It has to be a divine masterpiece with aim and direction rather than an accident or a detached incident of blind matter engaged in aimless motion (20:50). In other words, this magnum opus, fashioned by the best fashioner and springing from His infinite knowledge and power, must essentially contain in its innermost fabric serious wisdom, profound purpose and complete fairness (30:7-8, 59:24, 75:36, 87:1-3).

And thus the acknowledgement of God should lead us to the acknowledgement of the Transcendent (al-akhirat, the End, the whole, holistic, bigger picture, ultimate, long-term, permanent, eternal, transcendent; 2:8, 2:62, 2:126, 3:113-115, 95:6), which must incorporate in itself the inevitable idea of divine justice and perfect sense (3:25, 4:40, 46:19, 99:7-8).

This explains why the Quran constantly associates the Truth of God – i.e., the truth of His oneness and greatness and His infinite creative and re-creative power evident throughout the universe as well as in human’s own self (51:20-21; cf. 7:172, 16:13) – with the Truth of the Transcendent (al-akhirat), which represents the totality of this purposeful creation up to the end (51:23; cf. 51:5, 30:11).

The central messages in our own self: “Remember God and the Transcendent

The Quran identifies these truths about God and the Transcendent (al-akhirat) as the central messages in our own self (30:7-8, 51:20-23) and hence as the moral axioms or permanent values that eventually dictate our thoughts and actions. Let us see how.

Acceptance of God implies, in metaphorical terms, acceptance of the oneness of the Divine, and therefore the oneness of nature, and therefore the oneness of life, and therefore the oneness of humanity, and so on.

And acceptance of the Transcendent (al-akhirat) implies, in metaphorical terms, acceptance of the bigger/whole picture that transcends – i.e., extends beyond the instant and the immediate and beyond the ordinary range of perception – and therefore also acceptance of our accountability before God.

Both these ‘beliefs’, i.e., iman in Allah and akhiratacceptance of ‘the Oneness’ and ‘the Transcendent’ – when held rationally and sincerely, drive us towards a spiritual awakening that demands from us seeking knowledge and doing justice.

No wonder the Quran constantly places such great emphasis on these inner messages in our own self that it defines these axioms as the basis of all morality and ethics and hence as the fundamental tenet of Islam, which, accompanied with good work, is declared as sufficient for ‘salvation’ (2:8, 2:62, 2:111-112, 2:126, 3:113-115, 5:69, 95:6).

The call to contemplate on the inner messages in our own self remains grave and persistent:

They only know the outward of the immediate life: but of the End they are heedless./ Do they not reflect in their own selves? Not but with truth and for a destined end did God create the Heavens and the Earth and all between them. 30:7-8

Most certainly in the Heavens and the Earth are MESSAGES for the acknowledgers./ And in your own nature and in what He spreads out of the living creature there are MESSAGES for a people being convinced. 45:3-4


Related articles:

Divine messages in physical sciences

Divine messages in life sciences

Divine messages in human sciences



Note 1

The word ‘samaa’ throughout the context of ch 51 (51:7, 51:22, 51:23, 51:47) is a metaphor for divine almightiness and includes spiritual connotations that transcend physical sky. This wider meaning of ‘samaa’ is better covered here by the word ‘Heaven’ (sky, universe, spiritual abode, divine domain etc) rather than ‘sky’.

Should halal slaughter be banned?

should halal slaughter be banned

The prohibited foods and meat in the Quran are: Dead meat, running blood, swine meat1 and what was dedicated to other2 than God (2:173, 6:145, 5:3, 16:115).

The list, however, is then followed by the reassurance that even consuming any of these is not a sin if it is not done out of “willful disobedience or transgression” (2:173, 6:145, 16:115). And that, far more important is what is in our heart and mind (6:118-119)3. Thus, the actual stress in the Quran in issues like this is on spiritual values rather than on rituals and taboos (2:189, 5:101-103, 87:8).

Now, though the Quran lists the disapproved methods of killing animals for consumption (Forbidden to you is … the strangled, beaten to death, killed by a fall, gored and savaged by a beast. 5:3), it doesn’t support the much held notion that the so-called halal slaughter as practiced today by the traditional Muslims is a requirement to make the meat halal.

Here we sum up our understanding of the Quranic position on halal slaughter:

▪ The Quran nowhere ordains that halal slaughter, which is a misnomer, or any particular way of slaughter, is the only accepted method to kill an animal for consumption. This becomes clear when we note that the Quran approves the food of “the people of the Book” (5:5), i.e., Jews, Christians and, in a wider sense, other religious groups with scriptures, like Hindus, Buddhists and Zoroastrians.

▪ All  the traditional details of halal slaughter, including the pre-slaughter utterance of the extra-Quranic mantra “Allahu Akbar”,4 are human fabrications mainly based on imports from local Judaeo-Christian traditions during the earlier Islamic centuries.

▪ The prohibition of blood refers to “running blood” only (6:145), not blood trapped inside the flesh. Even the traditional halal slaughter doesn’t remove ALL blood from the dead animal.

▪ The Quran DOESN’T really say that a pre-slaughter utterance of God’s name is essential to make the meat halal. Even 22:36, the only verse that is sometimes quoted in this regard, is more like a reminder for the pilgrims to feel appreciative of God’s blessings for the provisions of the livestock after the prohibition of hunting is over during Hajj. And because this reminder is addressed to the pilgrims, and not the slaughterers, it is not associated with the actual slaughtering.

▪ The Quranic instruction “remember God’s attributes of mercy before eating/ consuming/ enjoying” (6:118) is often translated, inadequately4, as “utter God’s name before eating”. In fact, to follow the underlying message here – which tells us to consciously appreciate God’s every favour to us as His grace and mercy, before partaking of it – we neither need to “utter” anything, verbally or vocally, nor we need to say God’s “name”. Moreover, the instruction is general and includes all provisions and all foods (6:118-121), and not just meat (meat of the livestock during Hajj, 22:28, 36; meat and fish caught by the trained dogs and birds, 5:4, etc).

▪ Our reflection on God’s attributes of mercy before eating meat should inspire us to actualize these divine attributes in human capacity (59:24; cf. 1:1, 2:138, 6:118), thereby making our behaviour towards animals more humane and compassionate5 (16:5-7, 36:71-73, 6:38). In line with this persistent Quranic emphasis on universal compassion, our main animal welfare concern with the traditional halal slaughter is whether or not animals are rendered unconscious (stunned) before they are killed. While widespread research continues to show the animal welfare benefits of pre-slaughter stunning, halal-slaughtered animals are dying in agony because of people’s ignorance over pre-slaughter stunning. If that’s the case, then one may rightfully argue that halal slaughter without stunning should be BANNED in a society where a more humane method is available.


Note 1

The Quran allows consuming all foods that are wholesome and harmless (2:168, 5:4). Pork was prohibited because it was considered unclean and therefore harmful (“for it is impure/ tainted/ contaminated, 6:145”) as pigs used to be reared in filthy conditions. It should not be considered haram if it is clean and harmless, i.e., when pigs are raised as domestic livestock in hygienic environment. Though the Quran explicitly urges not to declare any good thing unlawful (5:87), some Muslim clerics declare numerous foods, including some excellent seafoods like mussels, lobsters, shrimps, crabs, octopus etc., unlawful.

Note 2

There is a deep rationale behind the prohibition of “what was dedicated to other than God” (“maohilla bihi lighayri Allahi”; 2:173, 6:145, 5:3, 16:115). The Quranic instruction “remember God’s attributes of mercy before eating/ consuming/ enjoying” (6:118) tells us to consciously appreciate God’s every favour to us as His grace and mercy, before partaking of it. The instruction is general and includes all provisions and all foods, and not just meat (6:118-121). This conscious appreciation of life’s blessings must be entirely dedicated to their ultimate source, i.e., to one God alone, and must not be corrupted by sharing with ‘others’ (these may include modern day idols).

Note 3

Asad’s note on 6:118: “The purpose of this and the following verse is not, as might appear at first glance, a repetition of already-promulgated food laws but, rather, a reminder that the observance of such laws should not be made an end in itself and an object of ritual: and this is the reason why these two verses have been placed in the midst of a discourse on God’s transcendental unity and the ways of man’s faith. The “errant views” spoken of in verse 119 are such as lay stress on artificial rituals and taboos rather than on spiritual values.”

Note 4

The Quranic instruction “remember God’s attributes of mercy before eating/ consuming/ enjoying” (6:118) is often translated, inadequately, as “utter God’s name before eating”. First, often rendered as “utter”, the word here is “dhik’r”, or “remember”. To the Divine who knows our mind, it shouldn’t matter whether our remembering is hidden or expressed (59:22). Since intentions are just as essential as actions (2:158), what is important is sincerity of mind, not a lip service (35:10, 29:2-3, 59:22).

Second, often inaccurately rendered as “name”, the word “ism” in this context actually means attribute (sifaat; note: God has no name) and, in particular, the principal divine attributes of mercy attached with Bismillah. This concept is expounded and constantly repeated throughout the Quran through the formula Bismillah al-Rahman al-Rahim (“With the attribute of God, the Mercygiving, the Merciful. 1:1”; cf. 1:1-3, 16:4-7, 17:110, 22:36). Thus, if one acknowledges God’s messages in nature, one would expectedly commemorate with gratitude His attributes of mercy while partaking of any blessing of life (“So eat/ consume/ enjoy from that on which God’s attribute (of mercy) has been remembered, if you indeed acknowledge His messages. 6:118”). This conscious appreciation of God’s favours to us, as instructed in the Quran, is in clear contrast with the traditional pre-slaughter utterance of “Allahu Akbar”, an extra-Quranic mantra that had its first physical appearance as a military slogan during the Umayyad period of Arab expansion.

Note 5

Inspired by the Quranic spirit of universal compassion and care, some vegan Muslims argue that veganism is very much compatible with Islam. If we are to follow ourselves the most principal divine attributes (the Sustainer of the worlds, the Mercygiving, the Merciful. 1:1-3) – i.e., when it comes to taking care of the Earth (7:56, 2:60, 2:205) and caring for all of God’s creations (6:38, 6:165, 1:2) – we should, at the very least, consume animals humanely, while considering cutting down on meat and even starting a vegetarian lifestyle. As the Quran promotes ideas that side with a vegetarian worldview, it is time more Muslims turned to veganism.