How hadiths insult and demonise the Prophet

How hadiths insult and demonise the Prophet

In our study on The Muhammad of the Quran, along with True Muhammad versus False Muhammad, we observed that Muhammad is better represented by the Quran – an existentialist document and an authenticated, contemporary diary that instantaneously records Muhammad’s ongoing experience during his prophetic mission to the Arabs and the world – rather than by all those legends, rumours and anecdotes of contradictory hadiths and sira, written centuries after his time on the basis of long chains of unreliable oral transmissions, distorted by amnesia, confabulations and conjectures, often with dubious motives and intentions.

Now, looking into all those recorded rumours and trashes contained in hadith books that both idolize and demonise the Prophet Muhammad, we can see why the Quran presaged the Hadith-whisperers as Prophet’s enemy (6:112; cf. 25:30-31; 7:194-204). And why the most aggressive weapon in the hands of the Islamophobes to attack Islam is Hadith.

The Quran testifies to the high moral character of Muhammad (e.g., 68:4). Contrast this with the examples below that demonstrate how hadiths, including the so-called sahih hadiths, constantly insult and demonise him:

  1. Muhammad is a torturer
  2. Muhammad is a plunderer
  3. Muhammad is a warmonger
  4. Muhammad is a mass murderer
  5. Muhammad is an aggressor
  6. Muhammad orders to burn people and houses with fire
  7. Muhammad orders to kill apostates
  8. Muhammad is a terrorist
  9. Muhammad orders to kill someone who posed no threat
  10. Muhammad allows killing through deception and lying
  11. Muhammad promotes rape of female captives of war
  12. Muhammad is a hate-preacher
  13. Muhammad is an anti-Semite
  14. Muhammad is suicidal
  15. Muhammad is bewitched
  16. Muhammad suffers from delusion and hallucination
  17. Muhammad is a megalomaniac
  18. Muhammad is a sex maniac
  19. Muhammad fondles his wives while in menses
  20. Muhammad promotes polygyny
  21. Muhammad is a wife beater
  22. Muhammad allows wife beating
  23. Muhammad is a male chauvinist
  24. Muhammad portrays women as inferior
  25. Muhammad makes women slaves to their husbands
  26. Muhammad insults and derogates women
  27. Muhammad is a rapist
  28. Muhammad is a homophobe
  29. Muhammad is a cross-dresser
  30. Muhammad is a deceiver
  31. Muhammad is a hypocrite
  32. Muhammad is a liar and oath-breaker
  33. Muhammad forgets his promise
  34. Muhammad is dispraised
  35. Muhammad is unjust and holds double standard
  36. Muhammad gives himself extra favours
  37. Muhammad is a nepotist
  38. Muhammad and his companions prosper through war booties
  39. Muhammad is a music hater
  40. Muhammad lacks sense of humour
  41. Muhammad laughs at genitals of a killed man
  42. Muhammad laughs while cursing Jews
  43. Muhammad laughs at someone’s dream of having head cut off
  44. Muhammad is a hater of art
  45. Muhammad breaks all statues, icons and images
  46. Muhammad asks to destroy heads of statues even if not idols
  47. Muhammad is a hater of dogs
  48. Muhammad is a paedophile
  49. Muhammad is a child abuser
  50. Muhammad is a child killer
  51. Muhammad promotes slavery and okays flogging of slaves
  52. Muhammad is a slave trader
  53. Muhammad calls debtors liars and promise-breakers
  54. Muhammad condones violence during prayer
  55. Muhammad makes contradictory comments
  56. Muhammad is a briber
  57. Muhammad is Mary’s Husband
  58. Muhammad is a racist
  59. Muhammad is a white man
  60. Muhammad is ungrateful
  61. Muhammad spits into drinks
  62. Muhammad spits on child’s face and mouth
  63. Muhammad spits into wounds
  64. Muhammad spits into eyes
  65. Muhammad spits on dead body
  66. Muhammad is dwarf and fat
  67. Muhammad is unclean and has lice in his head
  68. Muhammad makes unscientific statements
  69. Muhammad fabricates the Quran
  70. Muhammad discriminates between messengers


1. Muhammad is a torturer

Some people of ‘Ukl or ‘Uraina tribe came to Medina and its climate did not suit them. So the Prophet ordered them to go to the herd of (Milch) camels and to drink their milk and urine (as a medicine). So they went as directed and after they became healthy, they killed the shepherd of the Prophet and drove away all the camels. The news reached the Prophet early in the morning and he sent (men) in their pursuit and they were captured and brought at noon. He then ordered to cut their hands and feet (and it was done), and their eyes were branded with heated pieces of iron, They were put in ‘Al-Harra’ and when they asked for water, no water was given to them.” Narrated by Abu Qilaba, attributed to Anas. Bukhari 1:4:234; also Bukhari 7:71:590

The Messenger said, “Get him away from me and cut off his tongue.” Ishaq:595

2. Muhammad is a plunderer

The Prophet (sa) said, “My livelihood is under the shade of my spear, and he who disobeys my orders will be humiliated by paying Jizya.” Footnote: “Under the shade of my spear” means “from war booty”. Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar. Bukhari 4:88

3. Muhammad is a warmonger

Expeditions Led by Allah’s Messenger: In this year, according to all Sira writers, the Messenger personally led the Ghazwa of Alwa. (A Ghazwa is an Islamic Invasion in Allah’s cause consisting of an army unit led by the Prophet himself.) He left Sa’d in command of Medina. On this raid his banner was carried by Hamzah. He stayed out for fifteen days and then returned to Medina. The Messenger went on a Ghazwa at the head of two hundred of his companions in October, 623 and reached Buwat. His intention was to intercept a Quraysh caravan with a hundred men and twenty-five hundred camels. Tabari, Vol.7, p.15

4. Muhammad is a mass murderer

The Jews were made to come down, and Allah’s Messenger imprisoned them. Then the Prophet went out into the marketplace of Medina, and he had trenches dug in it. He sent for the Jewish men and had them beheaded in those trenches. They were brought out to him in batches. They numbered 800 to 900 boys and men. Ishaq 464; also Bukhari 5:59:362 and Muslim 19:4364

5. Muhammad is an aggressor

God’s Messenger said: “I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform that, then they save their lives and property from me except for Islamic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allah.” Reported by Ibn Umar. Bukhari 1:2:24

6. Muhammad orders to burn people and houses with fire

Allah’s Messenger sent us in a mission (i.e. an army-unit) and said, “If you find so-and-so and so-and-so, burn both of them with fire.” When we intended to depart, Allah’s Messenger said, “I have ordered you to burn so-and-so and so-and-so, and it is none but Allah Who punishes with fire, so, if you find them, kill them.” Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:52:259

The Prophet said, “Certainly I decided to order the Mu’adh-dhin (call-maker) to pronounce Iqama and order a man to lead the prayer and then take a fire flame to burn all those who had not left their houses so far for the prayer along with their houses.” Narrated Abu Huraira. Bukhari 1:11:626

7. Muhammad orders to kill apostates

The Prophet said, “If somebody (a Muslim) discards his religion, kill him.” Reported by Ikrima, attributed to Ali. Bukhari 4:52:260

Allah’s Messenger (sa) said, “The blood of a Muslim who confesses that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that I am His Apostle, cannot be shed except in three cases: In Qisas for murder, a married person who commits illegal sexual intercourse and the one who reverts from Islam (apostate) and leaves the Muslims.” Narrated by `Abdullah. Bukhari 9:83:17

8. Muhammad is a terrorist

Allah’s Messenger said, “I have been sent with the shortest expressions bearing the widest meanings, and I have been made victorious with terror (cast in the hearts of the enemy), and while I was sleeping, the keys of the treasures of the world were brought to me and put in my hand.” Abu Huraira added: Allah’s Messenger has left the world and now you, people, are bringing out those treasures (i.e. the Prophet did not benefit by them). Narrated Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:52:220

9. Muhammad orders to kill someone who posed no threat

An infidel spy came to the Prophet while he was on a journey. The spy sat with the companions of the Prophet and started talking and then went away. The Prophet said (to his companions), “Chase and kill him.” So, I killed him. The Prophet then gave him the belongings of the killed spy (in addition to his share of the war booty). Narrated Salama bin Al-Akwa. Bukhari 4:52:286

10. Muhammad allows killing through deception and lying

The Prophet said, “Who is ready to kill Ka’b bin Ashraf (i.e. a Jew).” Muhammad bin Maslama replied, “Do you like me to kill him?” The Prophet replied in the affirmative. Muhammad bin Maslama said, “Then allow me to say what I like.” The Prophet replied, “I do (i.e. allow you).” Narrated Jabir. Bukhari 4:52:271

11. Muhammad promotes rape of female captives of war

We got female captives in the war booty and we used to do coitus interruptus with them. So we asked Allah’s Messenger about it and he said, “Do you really do that?” repeating the question thrice, “There is no soul that is destined to exist but will come into existence, till the Day of Resurrection.” Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri. Bukhari 7:62:137

Narrated Buraida: The prophet sent Ali to Khalid to bring the Khumus ((one fifth) of the booty) and I hated Ali, and Ali had taken a bath (after a sexual act with a slave girl from the Khumus). I said to Khalid, “Don’t you see this (i.e. Ali)?” When we reached the prophet I mentioned that to him. He said, “O Buraida! Do you hate Ali?” I said, “Yes” He said, “Do you hate him, for he deserves more than that from the Khumus.” Bukhari 5:59:637

12. Muhammad is a hate-preacher

The Prophet said: The best of the actions is to love for the sake of Allah and to hate for the sake of Allah. Abu Dawud 40:4582

The Prophet said: If anyone loves for Allah’s sake, hates for Allah’s sake, gives for Allah’s sake and withholds for Allah’s sake, he will have perfect faith. Narrated by Abu Umamah. Abu Dawud 40:4664

Allah’s Messenger said: Do not salute them (non-Muslims) first, and when you meet them on the road, force them to go to the narrowest part of it. Reported by Abu Hurayrah. Abu Dawud 41:5186; also Muslim 26:5389 and 26:5390

13. Muhammad is an anti-Semite

The Messenger (sa) said: The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will fight against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim, or the servant of Allah, there is a Jew behind me; come and kill him. Narrated Abu Huraira. Muslim 41:6985, Bukhari 4:56:791

The Prophet said, “A group of Israelites were lost. Nobody knows what they did. But I do not see them except that they were cursed and changed into rats, for if you put the milk of a she-camel in front of a rat, it will not drink it, but if the milk of a sheep is put in front of it, it will drink it.” Narrated Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:54:524

The Prophet burned the garden of date palms of (the Jewish tribe) Bani an-Nadir. Reported by Ibn Umar. Bukhari 4:52:263

14. Muhammad is suicidal

After a few days Waraqa died and the Divine Inspiration was also paused for a while and the Prophet became so sad as we have heard that he intended several times to throw himself from the tops of high mountains and every time he went up the top of a mountain in order to throw himself down, Gabriel would appear before him and say, “O Muhammad! You are indeed Allah’s Messenger in truth” whereupon his heart would become quiet and he would calm down and would return home. And whenever the period of the coming of the inspiration used to become long, he would do as before, but when he used to reach the top of a mountain, Gabriel would appear before him and say to him what he had said before. Bukhari 9:87:111

15. Muhammad is bewitched

Once the Prophet was bewitched so that he began to imagine that he had done a thing which in fact he had not done. Narrated Aisha. Bukhari 4:53:400

A Jew from Banu Zuraiq who was called Labid b. al-A’sam cast spell upon Allah’s Messenger (sa) with the result that he felt that he had been doing something whereas in fact he had not been doing that. (This state of affairs lasted) until one day or during one night Allah’s Messenger (sa) made supplication (to dispel its effects). Reported by A’isha. Muslim 26:5428

16. Muhammad suffers from delusion and hallucination

Jabir b. Samura reported Allah’s Messenger (sa) as saying: I recognise the stone in Mecca which used to pay me salutations before my advent as a Prophet and I recognise that even now. Muslim 30:5654

Narrated ‘Aisha: Allah’s Messenger said, “O Aisha! This is Gabriel sending his greetings to you.” I said, “Peace, and Allah’s Mercy be on him.” ‘Aisha added: The Prophet used to see things which we used not to see. Bukhari 8:73:220

17. Muhammad is a megalomaniac

The Prophet said: None of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father, his children and all mankind. Narrated Anas. Bukhari 1:2:14; also Bukhari 1:2:13

Narrated Abu Said Al-Mualla: While I was praying, the Prophet passed by and called me, but I did not go to him till I had finished my prayer. When I went to him, he said, “What prevented you from coming?” I said, “I was praying.” He said, “Didn’t Allah say: O you who believes Give your response to Allah and to His Messenger (8.24)?” Bukhari 6:60:226; also Bukhari 6:60:1 and Bukhari 6:60:170

The Prophet said: I have been given five things which were not given to any one else before me. 1. Allah made me victorious by awe by His terrorizing my enemies. 2. The earth has been made for me. 3. Booty has been made lawful for me yet it was not lawful for anyone else before me. 4. I have been given the right of intercession. 5. Every Prophet used to be sent to his nation only but I have been sent to all mankind. Bukhari 1.331

18. Muhammad is a sex maniac

The Prophet used to pass by (have sexual relation with) all his wives in one night, and at that time he had nine wives. Narrated Anas bin Malik. Bukhari 7:62:142

Anas bin Malik said: “The Prophet used to visit all his wives in a round, during the day and night and they were eleven in number.” I asked Anas, “Had the Prophet the strength for it?” Anas replied, “We used to say that the Prophet was given the strength of thirty (men).” Narrated Qatada. Bukhari 1:5:268

Allah’s Messenger (sa) saw a woman, and so he came to his wife, Zainab, as she was tanning a leather and had sexual intercourse with her. He then went to his Companions and told them: The woman advances and retires in the shape of a devil, so when one of you sees a woman, he should come to his wife, for that will repel what he feels in his heart. Narrated Jabir. Muslim 8:3240

Then we reached Khaibar; and when Allah enabled him to conquer the Fort (of Khaibar), the beauty of Safiya bint Huyai bin Akhtab was described to him. Her husband had been killed while she was a bride. So Allah’s Messenger selected her for himself and … took her for his wife. Narrated Anas bin Malik. Bukhari 4:52:143

19. Muhammad fondles his wives while in menses

‘Aisha said, “Whenever Allah’s Apostle wanted to fondle anyone of us during her periods (menses), he used to order her to put on an Izar and start fondling her.” ‘Aisha added, “None of you could control his sexual desires as the Prophet could.” Reported by Abdur-Rahman bin Al-Aswad on the authority of his father. Bukhari 1:6:299

20. Muhammad promotes polygyny

The Prophet said, “Solomon (the son of) David said, ‘Tonight I will sleep with seventy ladies each of whom will conceive a child who will be a knight fighting for “Allah’s Cause.’ His companion said, ‘If Allah will.’ But Solomon did not say so; therefore none of those women got pregnant except one who gave birth to a half child.” The Prophet further said, “If the Prophet Solomon had said it (i.e. ‘If Allah will’) he would have begotten children who would have fought in Allah’s Cause.” Shuaib and Ibn Abi Az-Zinad said, “Ninety (women) is more correct (than seventy).” Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:55:635

Narrated Said bin Jubair: Ibn ‘Abbas asked me, “Are you married?” I replied, “No.” He said, “Marry, for the best person (i.e., Muhammad) of this nation of all Muslims, had the largest number of wives.” Bukhari 7:62:7

21. Muhammad is a wife beater

Narrated ‘A’isha: The Messenger of Allah (sa) … struck me on the chest which caused me pain (when she left the house one evening without his permission). Muslim 4:2127

22. Muhammad allows wife beating

The Prophet (sa) said: A man will not be asked as to why he beat his wife. Narrated Umar ibn al-Khattab. Abu Dawud 11:2142 and 11:2141; also Ibn Majah 3:9:1986

A woman came to the messenger and begged him to stop her husband from beating her. Her skin was bruised so badly that it was greener than the green veil she was wearing. The messenger did not admonish her husband, but instead told her to return to him and submit to him as long as he is not impotent. On seeing her bruises, Aisha said, ‘I have not seen any woman suffering as much as the believing women’. (summarised) Bukhari 7:72:715; also Muslim 4:2127

When Umar came to the messenger of Allah (sa) and said: Women have become emboldened towards their husbands, he gave permission to beat them. Reported by Iyas bin ‘Abd Allah bin Abi Dhubab. Abu Dawud 2141; also Ibn Majah 9:1985

23. Muhammad is a male chauvinist

Allah’s Messenger said, “Evil omen is in the women, the house and the horse.” Narrated Abdullah bin ‘Umar. Bukhari 7:62:30; also Bukhari 7:62:31 and 7:62:32

“After me I have not left any affliction more harmful to men than women.” Narrated Usama bin Zaid, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:33

“I stood at the gate of Paradise and saw that the majority of the people who entered it were the poor … Then I stood at the gate of the Fire and saw that the majority of those who entered it were women.” Narrated by Usama, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:124

The tradition (of the Prophet) is that if someone marries a virgin and he has already a matron wife (with him), then he should stay with the virgin for seven days; and if someone marries a matron (and he has already a virgin wife with him) then he should stay with her for three days. Narrated by Anas. Bukhari 7:62:140

When the Prophet heard the news that the people of the Persia had made the daughter of Khosrau their Queen (ruler), he said, “Never will succeed such a nation as makes a woman their ruler.” Narrated by Abu Bakra. Bukhari 92:50

24. Muhammad portrays women as inferior

The Prophet said (to some women), “Is not the evidence of two women equal to the witness of one man?” They replied in the affirmative. He said, “This is the deficiency in her intelligence. Isn’t it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during her menses?” The women replied in the affirmative. He said, “This is the deficiency in her religion.” Narrated by Abu Said Al-Khudri. Bukhari 1:6:301

The Prophet said (to some women), “Isn’t the witness of a woman equal to half of that of a man?” The women said, “Yes.” He said, “This is because of the deficiency of a woman’s mind.” Narrated by Abu Said Al-Khudri. Bukhari 3:48:826

25. Muhammad makes women slaves to their husbands

“A woman should not fast except with her husband’s permission if he is at home (staying with her).” Narrated by Abu Huraira, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:120

“If a man invites his wife to sleep with him and she refuses to come to him, then the angels send their curses on her till morning.” Narrated by Abu Huraira, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:121

“If a woman spends the night deserting her husband’s bed (does not sleep with him), then the angels send their curses on her till she comes back (to her husband).” Narrated by Abu Huraira, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:122

“It is not lawful for anyone to prostrate to anyone. But if I would have ordered any person to prostrate to another, I would have commanded wives to prostrate to their husbands because of the enormity of the rights of husbands over their wives.” Ibn Majah 1:595

“No human should prostrate to another, and if it were permissible for a human to prostrate to another I would have ordered a wife to prostrate to her husband because of the enormity of his rights over her. By God, if there is an ulcer excreting puss from his feet to the top of his head, and she licked it for him she would not fulfill her rights.” Reported by Anas b. Malik, attributed to the Prophet. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad 3:200

“If a woman dies while her husband was pleased with her, she will enter Paradise.” Narrated by Umm Salamah, attributed to the Prophet. Tirmidhi 286

26. Muhammad insults and derogates women

“Prayer is invalidated by (the passage of) a woman, a donkey and a dog.” Narrated by Abu Hurayrah, attributed to the Prophet. Muslim 511; also Bukhari 1:9:490

“Finding a good woman among women is similar to finding a white crow among a hundred crows.” Attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari, Ahmad b. Hanbal’s Musnad, Nisa’I, cited by al-Ghazali

“If the body of the husband is covered with pus and his wife licks it with her tongue, she still will not be able to pay her debt to him.” Attributed to the Prophet. Ahmad b. Hanbal’s Musnad, 12153; al-Jaami’, 7725

“The woman is like a rib; if you try to straighten her, she will break. So if you want to get benefit from her, do so while she still has some crookedness.” Narrated by Abu Huraira, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:113

“I advise you to take care of the women, for they are created from a rib and the most crooked portion of the rib is its upper part; if you try to straighten it, it will break, and if you leave it, it will remain crooked, so I urge you to take care of the women.” Narrated by Abu Huraira, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:114

“The stipulations most entitled to be abided by are those with which you are given the right to enjoy the (women’s) private parts (i.e. the stipulations of the marriage contract).” Narrated by ‘Uqba, attributed to the Prophet. Bukhari 7:62:81

27. Muhammad is a rapist

When Allah’s Messenger saw her (Safiya), he said (to Dihya): Take any other woman from among the prisoners. … He then granted her emancipation and married her (Muhammad takes Safiya after battle of Khaibar for himself from Dihya who had already chosen her). Muslim 008:3325. A long narration of this alleged event is also found in Bukhari 1:8:367

28. Muhammad is a homophobe

The Prophet (sa) said: There is nothing I fear for my ummah more than the deed of the people of Loot. Narrated by Jaabir. Tirmidhi 1457

29. Muhammad is a cross-dresser

The Prophet said (to Um Salamah): O Um Salama! Do not hurt me with Aisha; for by Allah, the inspiration did not descent on me while I was in the coverings (lihaf) of any of you (women) except Aisha. Narrated by Abdullah ibn Abdel Wahab. Bukhari 3941

30. Muhammad is a deceiver

I am the best of plotters. I deceived them with My guile so that I delivered you from them. Ishaq:323

31. Muhammad is a hypocrite

The Messenger of Allah forbade facing the Qiblah when urinating. But I saw him, one year before he died, facing the Qiblah (while urinating). Narrated by Jabir. Ibn Majah 1:325:1

The Prophet got married while he was in the state of Ihram. Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas. Bukhari 7:62:49 (in a state of ihram, the focus should be God, not marriage)

32. Muhammad is a liar and oath-breaker

We stayed for a short while, and then I said to my companions, “Allah’s Messenger has forgotten his oath. By Allah, if we do not remind Allah’s Messenger of his oath, we will never be successful.” So we returned to the Prophet and said, “O Allah’s Messenger! We asked you for mounts, but you took an oath that you would not give us any mounts; we think that you have forgotten your oath.’ He said, ‘It is Allah Who has given you mounts. By Allah, and Allah willing, if I take an oath and later find something else better than that then I do what is better and expiate my oath.’ Narrated by Zahdam. Bukhari 7:67:427

33. Muhammad forgets his promise

They came to the messenger and called upon him to answer these questions. He said to them, ‘I will give you your answer tomorrow,’ but he did not say, ‘if God will.’ So they went away; and the messenger, so they say, waited for fifteen days without a revelation from God on the matter, nor did Gabriel come to him, so that the people of Mecca began to spread evil reports, saying, ‘Muhammad promised us an answer on the morrow, and today is the fifteenth day we have remained without an answer.’ Sirat Rasul Allah, p. 133

34. Muhammad is dispraised

Allah’s Messenger said: Doesn’t it astonish you how Allah protects me from the Quraish’s abusing and cursing? They abuse Mudhammam and curse Mudhammam while I am Muhammad (and not Mudhammam). Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:56:733

35. Muhammad is unjust and holds double standard

If one murders a Muslim, he should be killed for retribution, but if he murders a disbeliever, he is fine and no retribution is required:

The Messenger of Allah said: It is not permissible to kill a Muslim except in one of three cases: A adulterer who has been married, who is to be stoned; a man who kills a Muslim deliberately; and a man who leaves Islam and wages war against Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, and His Messenger, who is to be killed, crucified or banished from the land. Narrated by ‘Aishah. Nasa’i 5:45:4747

The Prophet (sa) said: A believer should not be killed in retaliation for the murder of a disbeliever, and a person who has a treaty should not be killed during the time of the treaty. Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas. Ibn Majah 3:21:2660

36. Muhammad gives himself extra favours

Muhammad is teased by his wife when he allegedly gives himself extra privileges and immunities, through convenient revelations:

Narrated Aisha: I used to look down upon those ladies who had given themselves to Allah’s Messenger and I used to say, “Can a lady give herself (to a man)?” But when Allah revealed: “You (O Muhammad) can postpone (the turn of) whom you will of them (your wives), and you may receive any of them whom you will; and there is no blame on you if you invite one whose turn you have set aside (temporarily).’ (33.51) I said (to the Prophet), “I feel that your Lord hastens in fulfilling your wishes and desires.” Bukhari 6:60:311

37. Muhammad is a nepotist

I heard Allah’s Messenger who was on the pulpit, saying, “Banu Hisham bin Al-Mughira have requested me to allow them to marry their daughter to Ali bin Abu Talib, but I don’t give permission, and will not give permission unless ‘Ali bin Abi Talib divorces my daughter in order to marry their daughter, because Fatima is a part of my body, and I hate what she hates to see, and what hurts her, hurts me.” Narrated by Al-Miswar bin Makhrama. Bukhari 7:62:157

38. Muhammad and his companions prosper through war booties

Whenever a dead man in debt was brought to Allah’s Messenger he would ask, “Has he left anything to repay his debt?” If he was informed that he had left something to repay his debts, he would offer his funeral prayer, otherwise he would tell the Muslims to offer their friend’s funeral prayer. When Allah made the Prophet wealthy through conquests, he said, “I am more rightful than other believers to be the guardian of the believers, so if a Muslim dies while in debt, I am responsible for the repayment of his debt, and whoever leaves wealth (after his death) it will belong to his heirs.” Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 3:37:495

One of the arguments put forward by Umar was that he said that the Messenger of Allah (sa) received three things exclusively to himself: Banu an-Nadir, Khaybar and Fadak. The Banu an-Nadir property was kept wholly for his emergent needs, Fadak for travellers, and Khaybar was divided by the Messenger of Allah (sa) into three sections: two for Muslims, and one as a contribution for his family. If anything remained after making the contribution of his family, he divided it among the poor Emigrants. Narrated by Umar ibn al-Khattab, attributed to Malik ibn Aws al-Hadthan. Abu Dawud 19:2961

Whenever Allah’s Messenger (sa) ordered us to give in charity, we used to go to the market and work as porters and get a Mudd (a special measure of grain) and then give it in charity. (Those were the days of poverty) and today some of us have one hundred thousand. Narrated by Abu Masud Al-Ansar. Bukhari 2:24:497

39. Muhammad is a music hater

The Messenger of Allah said: Among my ummah there will certainly be people who permit zinaa, silk, alcohol and musical instruments… Bukhari 75:5590

Allah’s Messenger (sa) said: The bell is the flute of Satan. Reported by Abu Huraira. Muslim 024:5279; Abu Dawud

The Messenger of Allah said: When my Ummah begin doing fifteen things, they will be inflicted with tribulations, and (from those 15 things He said): When female singers and musical instruments become common. Reported by Ali ibn Talib. Tirmidhi

The Messenger of Allah said: Song makes hypocrisy grow in the heart as water does herbage. Reported by Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud. Bayhaqi

The Messenger of Allah said: On the day of Resurrection, Allah will pour molten lead into the ears of whoever sits listening to a songstress. Reported by Anas. Ibn Asakir & Ibn al-Misri

Ibn ‘Umar heard a woodwind instrument, and he put his fingers in his ears and kept away from that path. He said to me, O Naafi’, can you hear anything? I said, No. So he took his fingers away from his ears and said: I was with the Prophet (sa) and he heard something like this, and he did the same thing. Narrated by Naafi’. Abu Dawud

40. Muhammad lacks sense of humour

The Prophet (sa) said: If you knew that which I know, you would laugh little and weep much. Narrated by Anas. Bukhari 8:76:493

41. Muhammad laughs at genitals of a killed man

When a polytheist set fire to (i. e. attacked fiercely) the Muslims, Allah’s Messenger (sa) said to him (Sa’d): shoot an arrow. (Sa’d said) … I drew an arrow and I shot a featherless arrow at him aiming his side that he fell down and his private parts were exposed. Allah’s Messenger (sa) laughed that I saw his front teeth. Reported by ‘Amir b. Sa’d on the authority of his father. Muslim 31:5932

42. Muhammad laughs while cursing Jews

Ibn ‘Abbas reported: I saw the Messenger of Allah (sa) sitting neat the Black stone (or at a corner of the Ka’bah). He said: He (the Prophet) raised his eyes towards the heaven, and laughed, and he said: May Allah curse the Jews! He said this three times. Abu Dawud 23:3481

43. Muhammad laughs at someone’s dream of having head cut off

Jabir reported that a person came to Allah’s Messenger (sa) and said: Allah’s Messenger, I have seen in the state of sleep as if my head had been cut off. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (sa) laughed and said: When the satan plays with any one of you in the state of sleep, do not mention it to the people. Muslim 29:5642

44. Muhammad is a hater of art

I heard the Messenger of Allaah (sa) say: The people who will be the most severely punished before Allah on the Day of Resurrection will be the image makers. Narrated by ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood. Bukhari 5606; Muslim 2109

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: Those who make these images will be punished on the Day of Resurrection. It will be said to them, Give life to that which you have created! Narrated by ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar. Bukhari 5607; Muslim 2108

The Messenger of Allah (sa) said: Allah, Most High said: And who is more unjust than those who try to create the likeness of My creation? Let them create a seed or a small ant! Narrated by Abu Hurairah. Bukhari 5609; Muslim 2111

45. Muhammad breaks all statues, icons and images

The Messenger of Allah never left in his house anything containing the figure of a cross without destroying it. Narrated by ‘Aisha. Abu Dawud 34:132

Ali said to Abu Al-Hayyaj Al-Asadi: I am dispatching you with what the Prophet dispatched me: That you not leave an elevated grave without levelling it nor an image without erasing it. Narrated by Abu Wa’il. Jami at-Tirmidhi 10:85

The Prophet entered Mecca and (at that time) there were three hundred-and-sixty idols around the Ka’ba. He started stabbing the idols with a stick he had in his hand and reciting: “Truth (Islam) has come and Falsehood (disbelief) has vanished.” Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin Masud. Bukhari 3:43:658

46. Muhammad asks to destroy heads of statues even if not idols

The Messenger of Allah said: Gabriel came to me and said: I came to you last night and was prevented from entering simply because there were images at the door, for there was a decorated curtain with images on it in the house, and there was a dog in the house. So order the head of the image which is in the house to be cut off so that it resembles the form of a tree; order the curtain to be cut up and made into two cushions spread out on which people may tread; and order the dog to be turned out. The Messenger of Allah then did so. Narrated by Abu Hurayrah. Abu Dawud 34:139

47. Muhammad is a hater of dogs

The Prophet said: Angels do not enter a house which has either a dog or a picture in it. Narrated by Abu Talha. Bukhari 4:54:539

Allah’s Messenger ordered that the dogs should be killed. Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar. Bukhari 4:54:540

Allah’s Messenger said: If somebody keeps a dog, he loses one Qirat (of the reward) of his good deeds everyday, except if he keeps it for the purpose of agriculture or for the protection of livestock. Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:54:541

48. Muhammad is a paedophile

A’isha reported: Allah’s Messenger married me when I was six years old, and I was admitted to his house when I was nine years old. Muslim 8:3310

49. Muhammad is a child abuser

The Prophet (sa) said: Command a boy to pray when he reaches the age of seven years. When he becomes ten years old, then beat him for prayer. Narrated by As-Saburah. Abu Dawud 2:494 and 2:495

50. Muhammad is a child killer

Narrated Atiyyah al-Qurazi: I was among the captives of Banu Qurayzah. They (the Companions) examined us, and those who had begun to grow hair (pubes) were killed, and those who had not were not killed. I was among those who had not grown hair. Muslim 38:4390

Narrated As-Sab bin Jaththama: The Prophet passed by me at a place called Al-Abwa or Waddan, and was asked whether it was permissible to attack the pagan warriors at night with the probability of exposing their women and children to danger. The Prophet replied, “They (i.e. women and children) are from them (i.e. pagans).” Bukhari 4:52:256

51. Muhammad promotes slavery and okays flogging of slaves

The Prophet said: If a slave serves his master sincerely and worships his Lord (Allah) perfectly, he will get a double reward. Reported by Abdullah. Bukhari 3:46:726; also Bukhari 3:46:722, Bukhari 3:46:727

The Prophet said: None of you should flog his wife as he flogs a slave and then have sexual intercourse with her in the last part of the day. Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin Sam’a. Bukhari, 7:62:132; also Bukhari, 8:73:68

52. Muhammad is a slave trader

A man pledged that his slave would be manumitted after his death. The Prophet asked, “Who will buy the slave from me?” No’aim bin ‘Abdullah bought the slave and the Prophet took its price and gave it to the owner. Narrated by Jabir bin ‘Abdullah. Bukhari 3:41:588

53. Muhammad calls debtors liars and promise-breakers

The Prophet said, “A person in debt tells lies whenever he speaks, and breaks promises whenever he makes (them).” Reported by Aisha. Bukhari 1:12:795

54. Muhammad condones violence during prayer

The Prophet said: If while you are praying, somebody intends to pass in front of you, prevent him; and should he insist, prevent him again; and if he insists again, fight with him (i.e. prevent him violently e.g. pushing him violently), because such a person is (like) a devil. Narrated by Abu Said Al-Khudri. Bukhari 4:54:495

55. Muhammad makes contradictory comments

Two men came from the east and delivered speeches, and the Prophet (sa) said: Some eloquent speech has the influence of magic. Bukhari 7:62:76

The Prophet (sa) said: I have been given the keys of eloquent speech and given victory with terror. Bukhari 9:87:127

But elsewhere he allegedly condemns people who are gifted with this magic of eloquent speech:

The Messenger of Allah (sa) said: Allah the Exalted hates the eloquent one among men who moves his tongue round, as cattle do. Abu Dawood 5005

56. Muhammad is a briber

So the Quraish and the Ansar became angry and said, “He (i.e. the Prophet) gives the chief of Najd and does not give us.” The Prophet said, “I give them so as to attract their hearts (to Islam). Bukhari 4:55:558

57. Muhammad is Mary’s Husband

The Messenger said: In heaven, Mary mother of Jesus, will be one of my wives. al-Siyuti 6/395

The Messenger said: God married me in paradise to Mary the daughter of ‘Imran and to the wife of Pharaoh and the sister of Moses. Tabarani

58. Muhammad is a racist

Allah’s Messenger said, “You should listen to and obey, your ruler even if he was an Ethiopian slave whose head looks like a raisin.” Narrated by Anas bin Malik. Bukhari 9:89:256; also Bukhari 1:11:662 and 1:11:664

59. Muhammad is a white man

While we were sitting with the Prophet in the mosque, a man came riding on a camel. He made his camel kneel down in the mosque, tied its foreleg and then said: “Who amongst you is Muhammad?” At that time the Prophet was sitting amongst us leaning on his arm. We replied, “This white man reclining on his arm.” The man then addressed him, “O Son of ‘Abdul Muttalib.”… Narrated by Anas bin Malik. Bukhari 1:3:63

60. Muhammad is ungrateful

People used to come from their abodes and from Al-‘Awali (i.e. outskirts of Medina up to a distance of four miles or more from Medina). They used to pass through dust and used to be drenched with sweat and covered with dust; so sweat used to trickle from them. One of them came to Allah’s Messenger who was in my house. The Prophet said to him, “I wish that you keep yourself clean on this day of yours (i.e. take a bath).” Narrated by Aisha. Bukhari 2:13:25

61. Muhammad spits into drinks

Then Allah’s Messenger (sa) called for a cup of water and washed his hands in that and face too and put the saliva in it and then said: Drink out of it and pour it over your faces and over your chest and gladden yourselves. Muslim 44:236

62. Muhammad spits on child’s face and mouth

Narrated Mahmud bin Rabi`a: When I was a boy of five, I remember, the Prophet (sa) took water from a bucket with his mouth and threw it on my face. Bukhari 1:3:77

The first child born in the Islamic Land (i.e. Medina) amongst the Emigrants was `Abdullah bin Az-Zubair. They brought him to the Prophet. The Prophet (sa) took a date, and after chewing it, put its juice in his mouth. So the first thing that went into the child’s stomach, was the saliva of the Prophet. Narrated by Aisha. Bukhari 5:58:249; also Muslim 2148

63. Muhammad spits into wounds

Narrated Yazid bin Abi Ubaid: I saw the trace of a wound in Salama’s leg. I said to him, “O Abu Muslim! What is this wound?” He said, “This was inflicted on me on the day of Khaibar and the people said, ‘Salama has been wounded.’ Then I went to the Prophet (sa) and he puffed his saliva in it (i.e. the wound) thrice, and since then I have not had any pain in it till this hour.” Bukhari 5:59:517

64. Muhammad spits into eyes

They said: Allah’s Messenger, his (‘Ali’s) eyes are sore. He then sent for him and he was brought and Allah’s Messenger (sa) applied saliva to his eyes and invoked blessings and he was all right. Reported by Sahl b. Sa’d. Muslim 44:53

65. Muhammad spits on dead body

The Prophet (sa) came to (the grave of) `Abdullah bin Ubai after his body was buried. The body was brought out and then the Prophet (sa) put his saliva over the body and clothed it in his shirt. Narrated by Jabir. Bukhari 2:23:360

66. Muhammad is dwarf and fat

I saw AbuBarzah who came to visit Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad. Then a man named Muslim who was there in the company mentioned it to me. When Ubaydullah saw him, he said: This Muhammad of yours is a dwarf and fat. The old man (i.e. AbuBarzah) understood it. So he said: I did not think that I should remain among people who would make me feel ashamed of the company of Muhammad (sa). Thereupon Ubaydullah said: The company of Muhammad (sa) is a honour for you, not a disgrace. Narrated by AbuBarzah, attributed to AbdusSalam ibn AbuHazim AbuTalut. Abu Dawud 40:4731

The messenger made for a rock on the mountain to climb it. He had become heavy by reason of his age, and moreover he had put on two coats of mail, so when he tried to get up he could not do so. Talha b. ‘Ubaydullah squatted beneath him and lifted him up until he settled comfortably upon it. Ibn Ishaq

67. Muhammad is unclean and has lice in his head

Allah’s Messenger used to visit Um Haram bint Milhan, who would offer him meals. Um-Haram was the wife of Ubada bin As-Samit. Allah’s Messenger, once visited her and she provided him with food and started looking for lice in his head. Narrated by Anas bin Malik. Bukhari 4:52:47

68. Muhammad makes unscientific statements

The Prophet said: If a housefly falls in the drink of anyone of you, he should dip it (in the drink), for one of its wings has a disease and the other has the cure for the disease. Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:54:537

Allah’s Messenger said: The first portent of the Hour will be a fire that will bring together the people from the east to the west; the first meal of the people of Paradise will be Extra-lobe (caudate lobe) of fish-liver. As for the resemblance of the child to its parents: If a man has sexual intercourse with his wife and gets discharge first, the child will resemble the father, and if the woman gets discharge first, the child will resemble her. Narrated by Anas. Bukhari 4:55:546

The Prophet said: Fever is from the heat of the hellfire; so abate fever with water. Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar. Bukhari 4:54:486

Narrated Abu Dharr: I was sitting behind the Messenger of Allah who was riding a donkey while the sun was setting. He asked: Do you know where this sets? I replied: Allah and his Apostle know best. He said: It sets in a spring of warm water. Abu Dawud 4002

69. Muhammad fabricates the Quran

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar: During the lifetime of the Prophet we used to avoid chatting leisurely and freely with our wives lest some Divine inspiration might be revealed concerning us. But when the Prophet had died, we started chatting leisurely and freely (with them). Bukhari 7:62:115

70. Muhammad discriminates between messengers

The Prophet said: I am the most honourable messenger; on the Day of Judgement only I will think of my people. Bukhari 97:36

A Muslim and a Jew quarreled. The Muslim taking an oath, said, “By Him Who has preferred Muhammad over all people…!” The Jew said, “By Him Who has preferred Moses, over all people.” The Muslim raised his hand and slapped the Jew who came to the Prophet to tell him what had happened between him and the Muslim. The Prophet said, “Don’t give me superiority over Moses, for the people will become unconscious (on the Day of Resurrection) and I will be the first to gain consciousness to see Moses standing and holding a side of Allah’s Throne. I will not know if he has been among those people who have become unconscious; and that he has gained consciousness before me, or he has been amongst those whom Allah has exempted.” Narrated by Abu Huraira. Bukhari 4:55:620



Quran, the messenger of peace and tolerance

Quran, the messenger of peace


The Quran, the living messenger:

● insists on the ultimate Oneness of Humanity and asks people not to divide into conflicting factions (2:36-38, 3:103, 3:105, 4:1, 6:159, 7:189, 23:52, 30:19-22, 30:32, 42:13, 49:13);

● declares that humans have been made into nations and groups so that they may know and understand each other – and not to convert or subjugate others (49:13);

● acknowledges equal human rights and dignity of all individuals, regardless of their status and identities, and recognizes superiority only by awareness (2:30-34, 4:32, 17:70, 33:35, 46:19, 49:13, 95:4);

● calls on people to focus on their common goals as humans and to strive with one another as in a race in good works (2:139, 2:148, 5:48, 10:41, 29:2);

● acknowledges the rainbow of the collective human consciousness, or mind’s universe, which is knit with countless heavenly paths (6:107-108, 6:149, 13:17, 23:17-20, 23:32, 51:7-8, 70:3-5);

● asserts that there are infinite ways that lead to the Divine and spiritual awareness (‘plural paths’, 29:69; cf. 2:111-115, 2:274, 3:199, 11:52, 16:9, 18:24, 70:3-5, 92:4-10);

● states that, while there is only one universal principle of islam (peace-seeking), there are plural paths of peace to achieve that principle (subul as-salaam, 5:16; cf. 2:62, 2:111-112, 2:177, 3:57, 3:199, 4:94, 5:69, 6:52-53, 13:17, 19:96, 70:3-5);

● upholds the notions of a pluralistic society with peaceful intercommunal coexistence and cooperation (2:208, 2:136-139, 2:143, 3:64, 3:103, 5:2, 5:48, 15:70, 17:84, 21:71, 23:52, 26:164-165, 42:8-10, 42:15);

● condemns prejudice and bigotry and promotes acceptance of the differences (2:111-113, 2:148, 3:75, 4:94, 5:48, 5:65-66, 10:99-101, 18:29, 42:15, 74:11);

● recognizes the right of everyone to enjoy the full freedom of thought, opinion and expression, without being controlled by others, since everyone’s caretaker is God (2:272, 2:42, 3:71, 6:102-104, 6:107-108, 42:5-6);

● promotes the concepts of peaceful coexistence of all religions, or religious pluralism, and multidimensionality of the Truth (2:135-136, 2:148, 3:57, 3:64, 5:48, 5:65-66, 6:52-53, 6:149, 6:159, 13:4, 21:92-94, 22:17, 22:67, 23:17-32, 24:41, 42:8-10, 42:15, 70:3-5, 74:11);

● recognizes the sanctity of all places of worship – monasteries, churches, synagogues, mosques, temples and the likes (2:114-115, 5:48, 22:40, 22:67, 24:36, 24:41, 72:18);

● offers complete freedom of choice either to accept or reject the guidance (2:256, 2:272, 10:108-109, 18:29, 32:13, 74:11, 109:6);

● denounces coercion in matters of faith and supports everyone’s right to freedom of creed, religion and vision (2:256, 6:102-104, 6:149, 10:99-101, 18:29, 22:40, 42:8-10, 50:45, 74:11, 88:21-22, 109:6);

● asks not to insult others’ gods lest others insult God out of ignorance (6:108);

● acknowledges the need to allow people to worship their chosen idols – for the sake of intercommunal peace and harmony (7:150, 14:35-36, 20:90-94, 37:95-96, 38:5, 74:11, 109:6);

● asks to focus on our own behaviour, instead of judging other people’s behaviour, while leaving the final judgment to God alone (2:113, 2:141, 5:105, 6:149, 20:135, 22:17, 22:67, 27:78, 45:14, 49:11, 68:7, 74:11);

● recommends peaceful engagements and dialogues with differing religious groups by means of wisdom and in the kindest manner (3:159, 10:99-101, 16:125, 17:53-54, 20:43-44, 29:46);

● asks to avoid conjecture and not to argue with differing groups in matters of which one has little information (3:66,10:36, 2:111, 6:116, 18:22-26, 21:24, 45:24, 49:6, 53:28);

● calls for tolerance and peaceful cooperation even if dialogues fail or messages fall on deaf ears (3:186, 5:2, 6:70, 7:199, 10:41, 109:6);

● asks to always resort to a better response and repel evil with good, which could turn an enemy into a friend (3:103, 7:199, 13:22, 28:54-55, 41:34, 73:10-11);

● instructs to deal with mockers and bullies in a most peaceful manner – with patience, tolerance and restraint (25:63, 25:72, 4:140, 6:68, 3:186, 25:63, 25:71-72, 33:48, 109:6);

● prescribes no blasphemy law and no punishment for apostasy or rejection, while reassuring that there is always room for repentance (3:89, 3:85-90, 4:10, 4:137, 6:54, 7:180, 33:57);

● unequivocally denounces any act of hatred, aggression, corruption, homicide and mischief on Earth (2:190, 5:2, 5:32, 7:56, 7: 74, 13:25, 16:90, 26:151-152,  26:183, 27:48 -49, 28:77, 42:42 , 47:22 -23);

● asks to always stand for justice, without influence of hatred or bias, even if this goes against ourselves or our parents or relatives, or against rich or poor (3:18, 4:135, 5:2, 5:8, 6:152, 16:90);

● asks to speak to each other only that which is best and kindest (17:53-54, 20:43-44, 41:33-36);

● tells to do good to all people, including those who are bad (2:224, 2:272, 4:36, 4:85-86, 9:6, 16:90, 28:77, 42:23);

● asks to help others by spending from the goodies and not to give them things that we dislike for ourselves (2:267);

● asks to make due allowance for human nature, which is inherently weak and forgetful, and not to be harsh with those who err (4:28, 7:199, 9:6, 11:115, 20:115, 73:9-10);

● tells to restrain anger and forgive others for their wrong doings, and thereby to let go of resentments and move forward (2:109, 2:263, 3:134, 4:149, 5:13, 7:199, 15:85, 24:11, 42:37, 42:40, 42:43,  45:14,  64:14);

● asks to make things easy for people – without causing them undue hardship or demanding of them excessive efforts (2:286, 6:152, 7:42, 23:62, 42:23);

● calls on to deal kindly and equitably with everyone, unless one has to address an aggressor (4:36, 16:90, 42:23, 60:8-9);

● calls on to stand up for human rights against oppression and persecution; and thus sanctions war only for self-defense and as the last resort, while reminding that hostilities must be brought to an end as quickly as possible and the minute the enemy sues for peace (2:190-193, 2:2116-217, 4:75, 8:61-65, 22:40, 42:41, 60:7-8; cf. 2:216, 4:89, 5:33, 8:12, 8:39, 9:5, 9:29, 9:123, 47:4);

● tells to protect anyone who seeks safety and peace, even if s/he is from the hostile camp and in times of war (9:6, 60:7-9);

● encourages to continuously strive for making peace with all and also to mediate peace processes with opponents, especially with those who come with an offer of peace (2:208, 2:224, 4:85-86, 4:90, 4:94, 8:61-62);

● asks to greet with peace everyone, including idolaters, mockers and rejecters (6:54, 13:24, 20:47, 33:44, 24:61, 28:55, 43:89, 51:25);

● advises to return any greeting of peace with ‘a better greeting or at least a similar one’ (4:86);

● asks to observe the balance throughout the universe and to become an epitome of this balance by following the golden mean (2:143, 2:219, 2:238, 17:29, 25:67, 55:7-9, 68:28);

● asks in all dealings to measure with a just balance and not to deprive others of what is rightfully theirs (2:188, 2:274-275, 3:18, 4:29-30, 6:152, 26:181 -183, 53:38-41);

● portrays God mainly as an infinitely merciful and all-forgiving god rather than a cruel, vengeful deity, which requires us to incarnate these divine attributes of mercy and compassion in our interactions with others (1:1-3, 2:274, 6:12, 15:56, 36:58, 39:53, 53:38-41, 17:20, 40:7, 42:5-6); and

● constantly emphasizes that there are infinite paths that lead to the ultimate Good and so towards salvation (2:62, 2:111-115, 2:121, 2:135-136, 2:140-141, 2:148, 2:286, 3:57, 3:64, 3:199, 4:94, 5:16, 5:43-45, 5:46-48, 5:69, 5:77, 6:52, 6:107-108, 6:165, 10:41, 11:115, 16:9, 18:24, 19:96, 21:92-94, 22:17, 22:40, 22:67-69, 24:41, 29:46, 29:69, 39:10-11 , 42:15-16, 42:23, 45:15, 49:13, 53:39, 70:3-5, 92:4).


Here are some of the verses cited above:

The Quran calls for peace and tolerance: verse examples

Pollutants and evils intruded into Islam through traditions

Pollutants and evils intruded into Islam through traditions

Here is a very brief list1 of pollutants and evils intruded into Islam through hadiths, Siras and their by-products:

Idolization of the messenger

  1. Deifying the messenger with exclusively divine attributes, thus turning him into an infallible, omniscient and omnipotent demigod;
  2. Venerating him as a superman, superior to all other messengers and humans;
  3. Considering him as a subsidiary god who is authorised as a share-holder in divinity and divine legislation to amend, delete and add to Quranic laws and ethics;
  4. Ascribing various miracles to him including physical miraj and splitting of the Moon;
  5. Associating his name with God’s name in shahada, azan and salat prayers;
  6. Converting his tomb into the second holiest sanctuary;
  7. Constant, compulsory uttering of salawat, or darood, after his name;
  8. Belief in his intercession;
  9. Considering some messengers superior to others, and so on …

Idolization of the secondary authorities

  1. Hadiths, such as Sahih Sitta and The Four Books;
  2. Orders and sects, like Sunni, Shiite, Ibadi, Sufi etc;
  3. Madhhabs and factions, e.g., Maliki, Hanafi, Shafi’i, Hanbali, Salafi, Jafari, Wahhabi, Alawite, Alevi etc;
  4. Ahl e Bayt;
  5. Infallible Imams; The Fourteen Infallibles;
  6. Karbala;
  7. Nizamiyya; Deoband; Darul uloom;
  8. Hazrats, lords, saints, sheikhs, imams, mawlas, ulemas, maulvis, mawlanas, sharifs, sayyids, qutubs etc;
  9. Claim that the majority’s consensus or ijma is necessarily right;
  10. Tariqah;
  11. Taqlid;
  12. Classes of clergy, and so on …

Innovation of extra rules

  1. Reducing Islam to five pillars;
  2. Reducing salat to five ritual prayers;
  3. Fossilized, ritualistic details of prayers;
  4. Prayer caps, turbans, khirqas;
  5. Loud demonstration of prayer and its call;
  6. Additional prayers;
  7. Adopting Arabic customs and traditions as religious practices;
  8. Male and female circumcision;
  9. Stoning of adulterers;
  10. Cutting of thief’s hands;
  11. Reducing zakat to a fixed 2.5 percent rate;
  12. Beards, miswaks, khidhabs;
  13. Detailed rules on how to wash one’s privates;
  14. Right hands, left hands, right feet, left feet;
  15. Belief that there are separate lists of do’s and do not’s such as waajib (compulsory), mustahab (desirable), makruh (abominable), and so on …

Innovation of extra prohibitions

  1. Nasikhs-mansukhs; various maslaha-masail; fatwas;
  2. Disfavouring of scientific knowledge and secular education;
  3. Forbiddance of interest, equating it with usury;
  4. Prohibition of dance, music and musical instruments;
  5. Prohibition of painting and sculpting of animate objects;
  6. Prohibition of chess and sports;
  7. Criminalization and killing of homosexuals;
  8. Prohibition of masturbation;
  9. Prohibition of gold and silk for men;
  10. Prohibition of trimming the beard;
  11. Prohibition of dogs;
  12. Meticulous dietary prohibitions; halal slaughter;
  13. Prohibition of cremation, and so on …

Discrimination against women

  1. Head cover, or hijab, and full veil, or niqab;
  2. Segregation of men and women;
  3. Forbidding women to lead or participate in congregational prayer;
  4. Prohibiting women to become a head of state or an administrator;
  5. Forbidding menstruating women from prayer;
  6. Prohibition of female education;
  7. Prohibiting women to travel alone;
  8. Forbidding women to shake hands with men;
  9. Forbidding women to use perfumes and make-ups;
  10. Claim that two female witnesses equal one male witness;
  11. Prohibition for women to use birth control;
  12. Muta marriage;
  13. Triple talaq, hilla and so on …

Pagan beliefs and practices

  1. Belief in magics and miracles that violate natural laws;
  2. Glib recitation and totemization of the Quran;
  3. Seeking help from dead prophets and saints;
  4. Holy hair, holy clothes, holy teeth, holy feet traces;
  5. Rosaries, amulets;
  6. Holy shrines;
  7. Holy dreams;
  8. Holy loopholes;
  9. Kissing the blackstone;
  10. Holy Zamzam water;
  11. Stoning the Devil;
  12. Sacrificial slaughter of livestock by non-pilgrims, and so on …

Religious intolerance

  1. Blasphemy law;
  2. Killing of apostates;
  3. Jizya, or forced tax, for non-muslims;
  4. To coerce people to abide by religious rules;
  5. Punishment for drinking; punishment for not praying or fasting;
  6. Claim that Islam has come to dominate the world;
  7. Claim that Muslims must establish Islam as a political power like khilafah;
  8. Belief that it is allowed to bully people living in non-Islamic lands (Dar-ul Harb);
  9. Belief that it is ok to disregard the rights of those living in non-Islamic lands;
  10. Claim that only the Muhammadans/ Sunnites/ Shiites are to go to paradise;
  11. Claim that all non-Muslims are future dwellers of hell, and so on …

Misconceptions related to death, afterdeath and apocalypse

  1. Alamat e qayamat, or signs of apocalypse;
  2. The Messiah, Mahdi;
  3. The Antichrist, Dajjal;
  4. Physical ascension and second coming of Jesus;
  5. The Beast of the Earth, Al-Daabbah, as a sign of Doomsday;
  6. Gog and Magog, Yajooj and Majooj, as a sign of Doomsday;
  7. Divine torment during death;
  8. Munkar-Nakir;
  9. Torture in the grave;
  10. Belief that the dead benefits from the prayers and actions of the living;
  11. Belief that burial is more Islamic than cremation, and so on …

Fallacies related to a hasty reading of the Quran

  1. Literal understandings of the figurative texts of the Quran;
  2. Belief in the special creation of Adam and the creation of Eve from Adam’s rib;
  3. Belief in virgin birth, miracles of Jesus and similar other miracles;
  4. Belief that hadiths are necessary to fill the gaps of the Quran;
  5. Hostility towards science, reason and critical thinking in favour of parroting and blind following, and so on …

Because the Quran delivers the full message of Islam, it is the Quran alone that embodies the original and complete Islam. Anything in the name of Islam outside this Quranic Islam cannot be Islam, but unauthorized additions to Islam.

The Quran describes these additions as ‘evil’ junks and ‘burdens’ for the soul2 (2:286, 7:157, 5:100, 16:20-25, 62:5). They harm rather than benefit.


Note 1

For a longer list, please visit the following link:

‘Things not contained in the Quran: list of interpolations’

Note 2

Today’s Muhammadans are misguided like those Mishna-following Jews whom the Quran compares with ‘a donkey carrying a load of books’. While ignoring the divine messages as incorporated in the Quran, they are carrying burdens of volumes of man-made books and religious junks that they cannot make sense of: The parable of those who were given the Torah, but then failed to uphold it, is like the donkey that is carrying a cargo of books. Miserable indeed is the parable of people who denied God’s messages – for God does not guide the wicked people. 62:5

Lailatul Qadr: Night of Meditation

Lailatul Qadr Night of Meditation

In popular Islamic thought, Lailatul Qadr is believed to be a specific night during the month of Ramadan wherein Prophet Mohammad first received divine revelation. This specific night in Ramadan now requires annual celebration through additional prayers and rituals.

While this belief has prejudiced Muslim minds throughout the centuries, however, it has no basis in the Quran.

Lailatul Qadr signifies the secluded/quiet hours (‘night’) of reflection and contemplation that bring inner awakening

To better understand the meaning of Lailatul Qadr it is important that we go through a careful reading of sura Qadr (ch 97).

The word qadr, with its primary meaning MEASURING, has a rich plethora of undertones in the Quran, including – to measure, reflect, contemplate, meditate, analyse, estimate, evaluate, calculate, decide, empower, conclude, judge, determine and so on (6:91, 17:30, 21:87, 22:74,  30:37, 36:38, 39:67, 74:18, 74:19, 74:20, 87:3). In the setting of ch 97, in our observation, the best of its possible meanings could be meditation, thus rendering Lailatul Qadr as ‘Night of Meditation’.

In the sura we are given clues to recognize Lailatul Qadr as ‘Night of Meditation’ (97:1-2). Only a night of mindfulness can be better than a thousand months of mindlessness (97:3). Only a night of reflection and contemplation can be the best time when one is bestowed from on high with a deeper insight (97:4). Only a night of critical thinking and introspection can bring the inner awakening that brings the desired Peace (97:5).

The Quran attaches special importance to meditation and, in particular, night meditation (3:17, 9:112, 17:79-80, 25:63-66, 26:217-220, 39:9, 50:39-40, 97:1-5). Also, in Quranic idiosyncrasy, night embodies a time of seclusion (73:6-7). A reader who ponders over the Recital during the dark hours of night is heavily endowed with a profound message (73:4-5). This explains the emphasis in ch 97 on NIGHT, which is repeated in three of the five verses. Here the ‘Night of Meditation’ is described as the great time of revelation that presents Peace “till the break of dawn” (97:5)”. That is because: Verily the time of the night impresses the mind most strongly and speaks with the clearest voice,/ Whereas there is for thee by day prolonged occupations. 73:6-7.

Lailatul Qadr signifies the secluded/quiet hours of reflection and contemplation that generate inner awakening. Thus it refers to the general phenomenon of attaining revelation, achievable by every truth-seeker. It was not, and is not, a specific night in Ramadan.

It is neither a past event nor a specific night

Now, sura Qadr starts with a declaration with the perfect verb ‘anzalna’, which is usually, though inadequately, translated as ‘We sent down’ (Indeed We sent it down in a Night of Meditation. 97:1). This gives a first impression as if it is narrating an event of the past.

However, this doesn’t seem to be the case when we note that the Quran too frequently uses the same word ‘anzalna’, e.g., for ‘sending down of rain’, an oft-repeated Quranic expression to describe revelation, in the same way in the perfect/past tense (31:10; cf. 2:22-23, 6:99, 16:2-13, 22:63, 23:17-32, 35:27-28, 39:21-22). But, because ‘sending down of rain’ cannot be an event exclusively of the past, this use of the perfect/past tense can as easily be meant to stress the continuous recurrence of the phenomenon of rain: a continuity which, in opinion of some interpreters, is more clearly brought out in translation by the use of the present tense (cf. 7:172, 3:59). Following this line of reasoning, “anzalna mina alssama-i maan 31:10” is better translated as “We recurrently send down water from the Heaven”. And, further through this analogy between rain and revelation, 97:1 can be better understood as Indeed We recurrently send it down in a Night of Meditation. 97:1.

Interestingly, the same translators who fail to understand ‘anzalna’ in 97:1 in the present tense, understand its immediately following verb ‘adraka’ (which is also a perfect/past verb) in the present tense. It is important to observe that the rest of the sura then is invariably in the present tense, without any reference to the past. Note ‘is’ instead of ‘was (kana)’ in 97:2-3. Also note the sudden shift of the verbal form ‘anzalna’ (perfect/past tense) in 97:1 to ‘tanazzalu’ (imperfect/present continuous tense) in 97:4. Similar sudden shift of verbal forms from past to present can be noted in many other places in the Quran in reference to a present continuous ‘series of events’ rather than to a specific past event (cf. 3:59, 6:99).

Then again, the whole narration is very general, with no specific reference to any particular event of history. For instance, in “Inna anzalnahu fee laylatialqadri. 97:1” the singular object pronoun ‘hu’ – which means ‘it’ or ‘this’ – only refers to the message/the revelation in general. It doesn’t include the implication ‘to him’ or ‘to the Prophet’ and, therefore, doesn’t refer to any particular event of his life. This contrasts with, e.g., 2:23, a more specific verse in this regard, where the word ‘nazzalna’ (‘We have been sending down’) is followed by the word ‘AAala’ (‘upon’) to specifically refer to the Prophet. Thus there is no indication that ch 97 binds itself to any precise time or place.

Moreover, the Quran, according to the Quran itself, was revealing in Prophet’s mind – and is being gradually clarified in individual and collective human mind – NOT in a particular night but as a process of UNFOLDING (39:23, 16:101, 53:1, 56:75, 25:32, 17:106, 20:114). The continuous verbal forms ‘nazzala’ (‘has been sending down’ 39:23), ‘nazzalna’ (2:23, 17:106) and ‘yunazzil’ (16:101) in these instances further indicate this gradualness and continuity in revelation instead of its sending down in a specific night.

A humble rendering of sura Qadr

Keeping the above reflections in mind, here is a humble rendering of ch 97:

Indeed We recurrently send it down in a Night of Meditation. 97:1

And what makes thee realize what a Night of Meditation is? 97:2

A Night of Meditation is better than a thousand months (of mindlessness). 97:3

Descend therein the Universal Forces along with the Force of Inspiration, by their Sustainer’s leave, for every affair. 97:4

Peace it is till the break of dawn. 97:5


Sura Qadr is NOT about any past event or any particular night. Rather this short chapter can be better understood if the whole narration including 97:1 is rendered in present continuous tense, and interpreted in terms of ongoing recurrence and constant unfolding of divine revelation in human mind/s.

Lailatul Qadr signifies the secluded/quiet hours (‘night’) of reflection and contemplation that bring inner awakening.

Final thoughts

We can safely conclude that the traditional belief that Lailatul Qadr refers to a past event or a specific night is an innovation. Not supported by the Quran, it is a byproduct of Islamic secondary sources.

Lailatul Qadr, as it appears in the Quran, is the time of fruitful meditation that yields flashes of sudden awareness and insights. These are the great moments of revelation when we have deeply connected ourselves with the Divine, by ‘hearing’ the voices of our consciousness at its sanest states, when the reasoning is sound and the conscience is clear (28:71-72, 27:86, 40:61, 10:67). It is these Eureka moments of inner awakening we should continuously strive for. The moments when we leaped further in measuring, reflecting, analysing, deciding and determining.

A night of contemplation that brings this inner awakening and thereby brings Peace, which is the eventual goal of revelation (97:5), is certainly better than a thousand months of mindless inertia and ignorance. And this must be the true meaning of Lailatul Qadr that makes sense. This cannot be confined to just one particular night.

What does the Quran really say about intercession?

What does the Quran really say about intercession

The general Quranic position on intercession: While the Quran considers the testimony by one’s own self, which witnesses and self-records its own actions, as the only ‘intercession’ to be allowed on the day of Judgment – when the judgment absolutely belongs to God alone (10:3, 20:109, 34:23, 43:86, 78:38) – it unconditionally dismisses all intercessions as futile and any belief in intercession as idolatry, including intercession by any messenger, avatar, saint or whosoever (2:48, 2:123, 2:254, 6:70, 6:94, 7:53, 39:44, 74:48, 66:10).

The Quran insists that even the greatest religious celebrities themselves are not exempt from the divine law of recompense and that none has the power of saving a guilty from divine justice (2:48, 2:253-254, 6:15, 6:164, 9:80, 9:114, 10:15, 11:46, 39:13, 46:9, 66:10, 72:20-21, 74:48).

Now the Quranic expression “those who have been exceptionally approved to intercede” has an idiosyncratic meaning (implies natural consequences of cause-and-effect chains), which is very different from the traditional meaning of intercessors (implies extra favor and nepotism). Their presence and witnessing during the divine judicial process appear to be completely passive, no more than future shadows of past memories.

For example, you worked hard to prepare for exams. Your past efforts become your intercessors during the day of exam. Thus, from a Quranic perspective, the term ‘shafa’at’, though usually translated as ‘intercession’, actually means ‘to stand with’ (4:85), or ‘to stand up as a witness to speak the truth (20:109, 78:38)’.

The intercessors at personal level: The Quran metaphorically refers to human’s own self – which witnesses and self-records its own actions – and its associated controllers who witness these actions, like one’s own parts and senses (tongue, hands, feet, hearing, sights, skins etc), as the only ‘intercessors’ at personal level that have been divinely approved to intercede (17:14, 17:36, 24:24, 36:65, 41:20-22, 81:7) as they are the only ones who can “bear witness to the truth, and who fully know” about human’s own actions (43:86; cf 20:109).

The intercessors at community level: The only ‘intercession by messengers’ mentioned throughout the Quran is always at a community level and it is ALWAYS A NEGATIVE ONE: the idolized messengers (witnesses) will be condemning their own communities about idolatry, i.e. ‘associating God with others’ (21:26-28; cf. 2:166, 10:28-36, 11:18-21, 16:89, 19:81-82, 25:30-31, 28:62, 28:74-75, 35:13-14, 39:23-32, 41:47-48, 46:5-9).

The same applies to Muhammad, who, in contrast to the popular belief, is fallible and powerless like any human and is given no special knowledge about the future or even about his own fate or fate of others in God’s ultimate judgment (7:188, 10:49, 11:31, 46:9, 72:25). Besides, he is given no authority to intercede on the Judgment Day (9:80, 39:3, 39:19, 63:6) when there will be no mediator or intercessor whatsoever (2:48, 2:123, 2:254-255, 6:51, 10:18, 32:4, 39:44, 40:18). Rather, ironically, according to another Quranic allegory, Muhammad’s only ‘intercession’ on that day will be a NEGATIVE TESTIMONY against his worshippers, who deserted the Quran by hoping for his intercession (25:30-31). Thus, those who have deluded themselves into believing Muhammad as their saviour would be eventually rejected by their own idol himself (5:109, 2:48).

Finally, it is important to remember that all these descriptions about intercession on the Judgment Day are purely allegorical. It is absolutely impossible for a human mind to comprehend the ultimate meaning of these metaphysical descriptions as they fall within the category of ‘al-ghayb’ or sector of reality which is completely beyond the reach of human perception and imagination. Probably one can try to grasp them somehow only intuitively, as a general mental image, but not as a physical reality.


Related article:

Who can intercede on the Day of Judgment?

Distortion of shahada through the political slogan of the Umayyads

Distortion of shahada through the political slogan of the Umayyads

A review of the Dated texts and coins mentioning Prophet Muḥammad from the earlier Islamic decades and Abbasid coins exposes the gradual distortion of the Quranic shahada (the testimony of Unity) into the present day “dual shahada” (shahadatan, the testimony of Duality).

It reveals how this distorted shahada went through a devolution: first as a concept, then as a military slogan and finally as a well-devised politico-theological formula. And how Muhammad’s name was slowly permeated next to God’s name over the decades in line with an ever-increasing idolization of the messenger. And also, how this occurred partly as a Muslim response to their non-Muslim challengers during the period of Arab expansion. See Distortion of shahada evidenced by archaeology

To understand how politics played a major role in this process of distortion, we will observe the following imperialistic slogan of the Umayyads (661–750). This is a common text seen inscribed on the Arab coins since the reign of the 5th Umayyad Caliph ʿAbd al-Malik (685–705):

Muḥammad rasūl Allāh arsalahu bi-l-huda wa dīn al-ḥaqq liyudhhiru ʿala al-dini kullahi wa-law karih-al-mushrikūn

Muhammad is God’s messenger whom He sent with guidance and the religion of truth, that He may make it prevail over all other religions, even though the associators may dislike it.

At first sight this appears to be a simple paraphrase, adapted only innocently, of the following verses of the Quran (note the highlighted words):

He is the One who sent His messenger with the guidance and the system of truth, that He may make it prevail over all other systems. God is enough as witness:/ Muhammad is God’s messenger; and those who are with him are stern towards the rejecters and kind among themselves. 48:28-29

He is the One who sent His messenger with guidance and the system of truth, that He may make it prevail over all other systems, even though the associators may dislike it. 9:33 (cf. 61:6-9, 9:31-33, 14:48, 18:48)

Here one may get easily deceived by an initial impression that the Umayyad text simply connects the verse 48:28 with ‘Muhammad is God’s messenger’, a fragment from its next verse, 48:29 – though by turning the sequence upside down – and then imports, only unintentionally, the last phrase of 9:33.

On an attentive reading, however, it becomes evident that this seemingly spiritual, Quranic-looking text is in fact an extremely aggressive, chauvinistic slogan, which was instigated by a specific sentiment of those earlier Muhammadans and their hawkish rulers, who were insisting on making their messenger greater than all other messengers, partly as a reaction and a military propaganda effort against their Christian-Byzantine contestants. With this obvious religious-political agenda, the text was concocted by deliberately joining several unconnected fragments from the above verses, while carefully detaching them from their contexts, thereby distorting the actual messages of the Quran.

For example, note the fragment ‘Muhammad is God’s messenger’. This exact expression appears in the Quran only once, i.e. in 48:29 above, and that is also only immediately after a clear PROHIBITION for humans to include the messenger’s name in shahada: God is enough as witness:/ Muhammad is God’s messenger (48:28-29)”. Here we are reminded of a serious warning, which recurs throughout the Quran: God is enough as witness that Muhammad was God’s messenger.

The Umayyad masterminds detached ‘Muhammad is God’s messenger’ from its context by removing its preceding words,God is enough as witness’, in order to avoid this clear warning of the Quran. Then, after turning the sequence of 48:28-29 upside down, they purposely picked up the last phrase of 9:33 to make the expansionist threat to their enemies specific and also starker and louder.

This is how they, acting under religious-political motivation, performed a creative surgery of the holy texts and thus contributed to the increasing idolization of Muhammad. And this in turn contributed to the eventual transmutation of the original shahada of Unity into the present day shahadatan of Duality.

Related articles:

Distortion of shahada evidenced by archaeology

Earliest ‘dated Muslim texts’ constantly remember God but never Muhammad

Distortion of shahada evidenced by archaeology


Here is a list of Dated texts and coins mentioning Prophet Muhammad from the earlier Islamic decades:

Abbasid coins

A chronological study of these texts and numismatic materials exposes the gradual distortion of the Quranic shahada into the present day “extended shahada”. Below we summarize some of the findings from our observation:

• Although there has been constant remembrance of God’s name throughout the earliest ‘Dated’ Muslim texts, Muhammad’s name didn’t appear there until 66 AH/ 686 CE. In other words, Muhammad’s name appeared in a ‘Dated’ Muslim record for the first time NOT earlier than 54 years after his death, during the lifetime of the third and fourth generations of Muslims and at the beginning of the reign of 5th Umayyad Caliph ʿAbd al-Malik (65-86 AH/ 685–705 CE).

• Initially Muhammad’s name started appearing around 66 AH/ 686 CE, either to replace a governor’s name on the coin or as part of an isolated statement mentioning his messengership – like bism Allāh Muḥammad rasūl Allāh or simply Muḥammad rasūl Allāh – WITHOUT being conjoined with the declaration of God’s oneness.

• First as a concept, then as a military slogan and finally as a well-devised politico-theological formula, the extended shahada – where mention of Muhammad’s messengership was conjoined with declaration of God’s oneness – appeared for the first time in 72 AH/692 CE, and it appeared only in the margin of a coin. So it was not any earlier than at least 60 years after Muhammad’s death that the extended shahada appeared in a ‘Dated’ Muslim text!

• The extended shahada gradually evolved over a period of time encompassing several generations, in line with an ever-increasing glorification and idolization of Muhammad. This was promoted by a particular religious-political sentiment during the Umayyad period of Arab expansion, when Muslims were insisting on making their messenger greater than all other messengers, partly as a reaction and a propaganda effort against their Christian-Byzantine challengers. This is clearly evidenced by Islamic inscriptions on The Dome of the Rock (72 AH / 692 CE) as well as inscriptions (including uncontextualized or distorted Quranic messages) on the coins of that period.

• The coins from the later decades of the 1st Islamic century that contain reference to Muhammad – which either mentions his name or declares his messengership – show this reference running as a sidenote only along the MARGIN, and not in the CENTRE, which was reserved to state God’s uniqueness and greatness (SHAHADA and SURA 112). It was only in a much later period, during the reign of Abbasid dynasty (started 132 AH/ 750 CE), when sura 112 (sura ikhlas) was removed from the coin and Muhammad’s name was moved to the centre in its place, as a counterpart of God’s name!!!


A review of the Dated texts and coins mentioning Prophet Muḥammad from the earlier Islamic decades exposes the gradual distortion of the Quranic shahada into the present day “extended shahada”.

It reveals how this distorted shahada went through a devolution: first as a concept, then as a military slogan and finally as a well-devised politico-theological formula. And how Muhammad’s name was slowly permeated next to God’s name over the decades in line with an ever-increasing idolization of the messenger. And also, how this occurred partly as a Muslim response to their non-Muslim challengers during the period of Arab expansion.

Further reading: Earliest ‘dated Muslim texts’ constantly remember God but never Muhammad