(Reason 17 of ‘22 serious reasons shahada should contain no name except God’s’)
Apart from La ilaha illa Allah (‘There is no god but God’), no other shahada is approved by the Quran (3:18-19, 4:166).
And absolutely no authority is given nowhere to whatsoever association of other name/s with God’s (Do you know any who can be named along with Him? 19:65; 3:18-19, 3:151, 7:71, 12:40, 19:65, 28:88, 39:45, 40:12).
To our observation, the Quran doesn’t include in shahada any name other than God’s due to the following most obvious reason:
Bearing witness about a selected creature, in association with bearing witness about the Creator, exalts the creature – somehow and to some extent – to the rank of the Creator and thus presents as a case of association or shirk (19:65), the only unforgivable sin (4:48; cf. 4:116, 39:65, 6:88). This association diverts a mind away from the Straight Path of God alone, whereon is the sole focus of the Quranic shahada, the guiding principle of Islam (3:18-19).
Then the extended shahada, where one bears witness about Muhammad in association with bearing witness about God, evolved as a violation to this monotheistic concept.
Because no such formula is approved by the Quran, it must be an innovation and a later development.
It must have been formulated by Muhammadans after the Prophet’s death and during the first decades of the Islamic era in a specific environment – under the pressure of various socio-economic, political and psycho-theological factors – in order to serve, on the first place, specific purposes of various interest groups of that time.
Now, while proclaiming the precise formula ‘There is no god but God, Muhammad is God’s messenger’ – which binds and couples the testimony of God’s oneness with the testimony of Muhammad’s messengership in an interwoven formula1 – many Muslims of earlier generations somehow perceived God and Muhammad as two reciprocal mates of a divine pair.
Thus, by binding, coupling, interweaving and mingling Muhammad with God, they subconsciously fabricated in their fantasy an idolatrous concept of a very intimate, special, dual relationship between their fictional, mocked God and their imaginary, legendary Muhammad.
With time they eventually converted their cult leader into an idol2, an associate and a terrestrial counterpart with God (warning! And God has said, “Do not take-up two gods, two. There is only One god, so it is Me, only Me, that you shall revere.” 16:51).
Then, also in daily practice, by bearing witness about Muhammad in association with bearing witness about God, one turns Muhammad the human into an associate with God and, therefore, a secondary authority in divinity and divine legislation (6:19, 6:106, 6:150, 16:35).
This supposed co-authorship of Muhammad with God gives manmade books of hadith hearsays a green light and a divine status besides the Quran3, while seriously violating a most important instruction of the Quran: Do not uphold any other hadith but the Quran only (So, in which HADITH after God and His messages will they believe? 45:6; 7:185, 77:50; see The Quran prohibited Hadith).
Then this makes one to blindly accept Hadith (words and deeds attributed to Muhammad) as divine and to follow it as a secondary source of Islam (warning! Or do you have another book which you study?/ In it, you find all that you may wish to find? 68:37-38; warning! Or have We given them a Book wherefrom they are taking clarification? Nay, but what the transgressors promise one another is nothing but delusion. 35:40; cf. 6:112, 2:169).
From then on, any manmade teaching or any idea or opinion of a particular interest group can be made ‘divine’ by falsely attributing it to Muhammad through one or more fabricated hadith hearsays.
This creates false religions and thereby diverts people from the right path of Islam.
And this is exactly what happened with Islam4 during the Umayyad and the earlier parts of the Abbasid period.
Since then, this supposed co-authorship of Muhammad with God in divinity and divine legislation, thus illegitimately exercised through countless hadiths, has been seriously interfering in the divine authority of the Quran (17:42-43) and hence creating great confusion among the people, Muslims and non-Muslims alike.
And this has eventually contributed to the downfall of the ‘Islamic civilization’ of the past as well as to the dangerous breeding of so many serious ills and failures of the Muslim societies of the past and the present5 (7:182, 185; cf. 68:44).
Thus it appears that all the corruption in Islam somehow started with the manmade extension of the Quranic shahada.
Extended shahada creates false religions by inventing secondary authorities
The sole focus of the Quranic shahada, the guiding principle of Islam, is on the Straight Path of God alone (3:18-19). Any association, such as in the sectarian extension where Muhammad’s name is coupled with God’s, diverts a mind away from this Path.
Now the traditionally perceived ‘divinity’ of Muhammad – an un-Quranic and anti-Quranic concept – remains constantly ‘established’ in mind as it is continuously ‘certified’ by bearing witness about Muhammad in association with bearing witness about God.
Formulized as ‘full shahada’, this ongoing psychological exercise turns Muhammad the human into an associate with God and so into a human god and so a second author in divinity and divine legislation.
This supposed co-authorship of Muhammad with God gives manmade books of hadith hearsays a green light and a divine status besides the Quran, while seriously violating a most important Quranic instruction: Do not uphold any other hadith but the Quran only. Then this makes one to blindly follow Hadith and its outgrowths as a secondary source of Islam. From then on, any teaching or any idea or opinion of a particular interest group can be made ‘divine’ by deviously attributing it to Muhammad through one or more fabricated hadith hearsays.
This creates false religions and thereby diverts people from the right path of Islam. And this is how generations of Muhammadans remain misguided by the vicious cycle of various pseudo-islams and their unending consequences.
This extra-Quranic formula, with its interweaving nature, clearly resembles the Christian confession of faith where the Father and the Son co-exist within one deity as One (John 17:3). It could be also perceived by some as an emblem representing the unity of existence (wahdat al-wujud), where the Creator and the creation intermingle into One.
Since the ulterior motives behind the extended shahada violate the notion of God’s indivisible sovereignty and thereby prompt people to worship the messenger as a semi-divinity and a divine co-legislator along with God, it may as easily instigate the intolerant devotees to commit acts of extremism and most heinous crimes in the name of their human Lord (warning! Say: Shall I seek for Lord other than God when He is the Sustainer of everything? 6:164; cf. 2:135-136, 3:64-65, 3:80, 18:101-110).
Because Muhammad, as depicted in the Quran, is not allowed to share in divinity or in divine judgement (6:114, 10:35-36, 12:40, 18:26, 28:88, 30:30, 30:43, 98:5), he was not authorised to deliver any of his own teachings in God’s name or to claim any of his personal sayings to be inspired by God (69:43-46, 17:73-75). Thus, as he is not a co-author in divinity and divine legislation, he was not supposed to issue, amend or cancel any religious law on his own (30:35, 12:39-40, 66:1). He brought no ‘other book’ and no other message apart from the Quran (10:15, 68:35-44). Obviously, no hadith book can be accepted as a co-authority with the Quran to clarify the Quran (35:40; cf. 6:112, 2:169).
Looking into the historical context of the early Islamic centuries we can try to grasp what was there in the minds of those Muhammad-worshippers during the Umayyad and the earlier parts of the Abbasid period, who invented the extended shahada as they found it so vital to associate Muhammad’s name with God’s.
The Quran appears to predict the socio-politico-economic and spiritual decline of the Muhammadans who, instead of following ‘God’s hadith’ (4:87, i.e. the Quran; cf. 77:50, 18:6, 53:59, 56:81, 39:23, 52:34, 6:68, 4:140, 12:111), have been mainly following various manmade hadiths that mock the actual messages of the Quran (4:140, 6:68, 7:182-185,15:95, 31:6, 68:44).